1936-1941 Holocaust Movie Poster Krakow Ghetto - Synagogue Jewish Film Judaica
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1936-1941 Holocaust Movie Poster Krakow Ghetto - Synagogue Jewish Film Judaica:
DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an ORIGINAL advertising GIANT PHOTOGRAPHED beautifuly designed THEATREPOSTER which was published ca 10 years ago by the JEWISH ISAAC SYNAGOGUE (Synagoga Izaaka ) inthe JEWISH DISTRICT of KAZIMIERZ KRAKOW POLAND ( Krakov ,Cracow, Cracaw ) to advertise the projection of two documentary MOVIES - FILMS regarding the HOLOCAUST of the POLISH JEWRY , Specificaly the JEWS of KRAKOW . The two films are : " Kazimierz (Jewish quarter in Krakow), 1936 " which was filmed in 1936 and " The REMOVAL toCRACOW GHETTO - 1941 " An amazing documentary which was filmed by the NAZIS. Printed on thick chromo.The GIANT poster SIZE is around 28" x 40" . Very good condition. ( Please look at scan for actual AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. AUTHENTICITY :The posteris fullyguaranteed ORIGINAL fromKRAKOW POLAND, The ORIGINAL OFFICIALtheatre FILMPOSTER , It is NOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation ,Itholds alife long GUARANTEE for itsAUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.
PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal.
SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registeredairmail is$15 . Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Will be sent inside a protective envelope . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.
From WIKIPEDIA : Dating from 1664, the Isaak Synagogue (Synagoga Izaaka) is considered by many to be the most beautiful synagogue in Krakow. It was badly damaged during the Nazi occupation and now houses historic photographs and documentary films. History Isaac's Synagogue is named for its founder, Izaak Jakubowicz, a resident of Kazimierz and the center of one of most famous Hasidic legends. The story goes that Isaac had a dream about a treasure hidden in Prague, near the Charles Bridge. He immediately went to the city, where he found the bridge filled with soldiers. One of the soldiers approached Isaac and asked him his business there. When Isaac explained about his dream and search for treasure, the soldier laughed at him and said, "Only a naive fool would come so far for a dream! I myself keep having this dream that in a house of a Krakovian Jew named Isaac, son of Jacob, there is a treasure hidden under the furnace. But I'm not so foolish as to go to Krakow and look for it. After all, every second Jew is named Isaac, and every third, Jacob!" Isaac thanked him, returned home to Krakow, dismantled the furnace, and found a great treasure. He became one of the wealthiest citizens of Kazimierz and founded this magnificent synagogue in 1664. What to See The austerely attractive exterior of the Isaak Synagogue includes an outside stairway that leads up to the women's gallery. Inside, the early Baroque building has a beautiful, stucco-decorated ceiling and fine arcades in the women's gallery. The walls bear faded frescoes of Hebrew texts. The synagogue now houses an exhibition on the history of Polish Jews. On display are moving photographs of former Kazimierz residents and their families as well as the main treasure: several older documentary films on Kazimierz that run continuously during the day. One film from the late 1930s is French (but narrated in German) on health conditions in the ghetto; another is a U.S. film from earlier in the decade about Jewish life here. But the most haunting of all are the silent newsreels filmed by the Germans as they cleared the Jewish Quarter of its residents in 1941. ****** The Izaak Synagogue or Isaac Synagogue, formally known as the Isaak Jakubowicz Synagogue, is a Prayerhouse built in 1644 in the historic Kazimierz District of Kraków, Poland. The synagogue is named for its donor, Izaak Jakubowicz (d. 1673), also called Isaac the Rich, a banker to King Władysław IV. The synagogue was designed by Francesco Olivierri, an Italian working in Poland in that era. Jakubowicz is buried in the Remuh Cemetery. Variants of the name include Ayzik , Izaak, and Isaac. Izaak is the standard Polish spelling, while Jakubowicz is Polish for a "Son of Jacob Legend associated with this synagogue "The founder of the synagogue is the hero of a well-known legend deriving from the Tales of 1001 Nights. Ayzik Jakubowicz, a pious but poor Jew, dreamed that there was treasure hidden under the old bridge in Prague. Without delay, he made his way there. On arrival, it turned out the bridge was guarded by a squad of soldiers and that digging was out of the question. Ayzik told the officer about his dream, promising him half of the booty. The officer retorted, "Only fools like Polish Jews can possibly believe in dreams. For several nights now I have been dreaming that in the Jewish town of Kazimierz there is hidden treasure in the oven of the home of the poor Jew Ayzik Jakubowicz. Do you think I am so stupid as to go all the way to Cracow and look for the house of this Isaac the son of Jacob?". Ayzik returned home immediately, took the oven apart, found the treasure and became rich. After this it was said: 'There are some things which you can look for the world over, only to find them in your own home. Before you realise this, however, you very often have to go on along journey and search far and wide.' " Architecture The interior walls of the early Baroque building are embellished with painted prayers, visible after conservation removed covering layers of paint. The vaulted ceiling is embellished with baroque plasterwork wreaths and garlands. Before the Nazi occupation of Poland, the synagogue boasted a widely-admired, wooden, baroque Aron Kodesh. When the building was planned, the design was considered by some diocesan officials to be too beautiful for Jews to have, which led to delays in the synagogue’s construction. Architectural historian Carol Herselle Krinsky considers the Isaak (Isaac) to be "the most architecturally important" of all the old synagogues of Krakow. According to Krinsky, the womes's gallery and exterior stairs leading to it are a later addition to the building. History On 5 December 1939, the Gestapo came to the Krakow Judenrat building and ordered, Maximilian Redlich, the Jewish official on duty that day to burn the scrolls of the Torah. When Redlich refused he was shot dead.Nazis destroyed the interior and furnishings, including the bimah and Aron Kodesh. After the war, the building was used by a sculpture and conservation atelier and then by a theatre company as workshop space and for the storage of props. A fire in 1981 damaged the interior. A renovation was begun in 1983 and in 1989, with the fall of communism in Poland, the building was returned to the Jewish community. It is presently used as an exhibition space. ***** Isaac's Synagogue is named for its founder, Izaak Jakubowicz, a resident of Kazimierz and the center of one of most famous Hasidic legends. The story goes that Isaac had a dream about a treasure hidden in Prague, near the Charles Bridge. He immediately went to the city, where he found the bridge filled with soldiers. One of the soldiers approached Isaac and asked him his business there. When Isaac explained about his dream and search for treasure, the soldier laughed at him and said, "Only a naive fool would come so far for a dream! I myself keep having this dream that in a house of a Krakovian Jew named Isaac, son of Jacob, there is a treasure hidden under the furnace. But I'm not so foolish as to go to Krakow and look for it. After all, every second Jew is named Isaac, and every third, Jacob!" Isaac thanked him, returned home to Krakow, dismantled the furnace, and found a great treasure. He became one of the wealthiest citizens of Kazimierz and founded this magnificent synagogue in 1664. **** Kazimierz (Jewish quarter in Krakow), 1936 Title: Krakow Jewish QuarterCollection Title: Julien Bryan Collection Event Date: Genre: Unedited Language: Mute Place: Krakow, Poland Links: Description: Market square and vibrant daily life in Kazimierz, Krakow's Jewish quarter. CU, man inspecting a chicken for sale. CU, young girl at the market. High angle view of a prominent spire and statue. Quick shot of a table full of chickens and shoppers set before the Izaak synagogue, which still stands today. Streets in Krakow with shops and inhabitants of the Jewish quarter. A group of school boys following a man with balloons pass by the entrance to a hotel, "Restauracia Kawiarnia Hotelu Mullera". View of another street in the Jewish quarter with children helping an older woman bring hay through an open doorway. This small street was captured by renowned photographer Roman Vishniac in his captivating images of Jewish life before the Holocaust. Quick travelling shot of a horse drawn carriage. Several religious men in walk along the street. Quick view of one of Bryan's cameraman, Jules Bucher (screen right). The bustling market square with merchants and shoppers before the Izaak synagogue, followed by street scenes. An elderly couple stands in the doorway of a shop displaying men's clothing and accessories, the name "M. Finkelstein" is above the door. More street scenes. Cut to a horse-drawn carriage and its driver in Krakow's theater district. A poster advertises the comedy team of Dzigan and Schumacher. Many passersby stop to look at the camera, particularly the children. MLS, a young woman with a suitcase in hand speaks to two men. Four religious Jewish men turn away from the camera quickly, one (screen center) raises his hand to cover his face. Striking CUs of young Jewish boys talking and laughing. 01:02:33 Abrupt cut to barges along the river near the castle in Krakow. Source: Sam Bryan, JB 2101 Copyright: Sam Bryan Time Code: 01:00:00:00 - 01:02:37:24 Duration: 00:02:37 USHMM Format: 35mm; DigiBeta; Betacam SP; VHS Original Format: 35mm; b/w pos print Director: Julien Bryan Producer: Julien Bryan Cameraman: Julien Bryan; Jules Bucher Production Date: 1937 Biography / History: Julien Hequembourg Bryan (1899-1974) was an American documentarian and filmmaker. In the 1930s, he conducted extensive lecture tours, during which he showed film footage he shot in the former USSR. Between 1935 and 1938, he captured unique records of ordinary people and life in Nazi Germany and in Poland. He was in Warsaw within days of Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939 and remained throughout the German siege of the city, filming and photographing what would become America's first cinematic glimpse of the start of WWII. Accession Info: 2003.214 The Julien Bryan Collection of films, photographs, documents, and artifacts was purchased by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum from Sam Bryan and the International Film Foundation, Inc. on February 12, 2003. PE Monitor: Notes: Detailed preservation notes from the film lab are available in SSFVA department files. Additional photographs are available in the USHMM Photo Archives. ***** When Julien Bryan and Jules Bucher convened for a screening thirty years after they filmed Krakow’s Jewish quarter, Bryan noted that “the shots of the ghetto are remarkable historical material…. The products: the geese, the ducks and the fowl being sold were of good quality and abundant.” Bucher remembered the Jews as quite cheerful and cooperative: “Many of them came out and wanted to have their pictures taken. There were a number of candid shots where they paid no attention.” Through their camera lens, Bryan and Bucher recorded the once vibrant Jewish life before the Holocaust, as well as the Izaak synagogue (which still stands today) and a view of the street that was famously documented by renowned photographer Roman Vishniac. What they could not relate on film, however, was the “great amount of anti-Jewish feelings [in Poland].… Even a cosmopolitan and educated man told us that the Jews in the ghettos who pretended to be so poor had millions in gold under their beds.” ***** Kazimierz (Polish pronunciation:[kaˈʑimjɛʂ]; Latin: Casimiria; Yiddish: קוזמיר) is a historical district of Kraków (Poland), best known for being home to a Jewish community from the 14th century until the Second World WarEarly history The district of Kazimierz in Krakow is defined by the old shores of an island in the Vistula river. The northern branch of the river (Stara Wisła - Old Vistula) was filled in at the end of the 19th century, connecting Kazimierz with Krakow proper. Three early medieval settlements are known to have existed on the island. The most important of these was the pre-Christian Slavic shrine at Skałka (“the rock”) at the western, upstream tip of the island. This site, with its sacred pool, was later Christianised as the Church of St. Michael the Archangel in the 11th century and was the legendary site of the martyrdom of St. Stanisław. There was a nearby noble manor complex to the southeast and an important cattle-market town of Bawół, possibly based on an old tribal Slavic gród, at the edges of the habitable land near the swamps that composed the Eastern, downstream end of the island. There was also a much smaller island upstream of Kazimierz known as the “Tartar Island” after the Tartar cemetery there. This smaller island has since washed away. On 27 March 1335, King Casimir III of Poland (Kazimierz in Polish) declared the two western settlements to be a new city named "Casimiria" (later “Kazimierz”) after him. Shortly thereafter, in 1340, Bawół was also added, making the new city’s boundaries the same as the island. King Casimir gave his city streets in accordance with Magdeburg law and, in 1362, defensive walls. His settled the newly-built central section primarily with burghers, with a plot set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. He also began work on a campus for the Cracow Academy he founded in 1364, but Casimir died in 1370 and the campus was never completed. Perhaps the most important feature of medieval Kazimierz was the Pons Regalis, the only major, permanent bridge across the Vistula for several centuries. This bridge connected Krakow via Kazimierz to the Wieliczka Salt Mine and the lucrative Hungarian trade route. The last bridge at this location (at the end of modern Stradom Street) was dismantled in 1880 when the filling in of the Old Vistula river bed made it obsolete. Jewish Kazimierz Jews had played an important role in the Kraków region economy since the end thirteenth century. The Jewish community in Kraków had lived undisturbed alongside their Christian neighbours under the protective King Kazimierz III. By the reign of King Jogaila (reigned in Poland 1386-1434), however, relations had deteriorated and pogroms began to occur with increasing frequency. As part of the re-founding of the Cracow Academy, starting in 1400, the Academy began to buy out buildings in the old Jewish district. The Jewish community moved to the area around modern Plac Szczepański. During the last decade of the fifteenth century anti-Semitism led many Jews to move out of Kraków to nearby Kazimierz. There, they built a Fortress synagogue, the Old Synagogue (Kraków). In 1494 a disastrous fire destroyed a large part of Kraków. Raging populace soon attacked the Jews, blaming the fire on them. In 1495 the Polish king John I Albert of Poland expelled all Jews from Kraków, resettling them to the old Bawół district of Kazimierz. For its own defence against Christian raids, the kahal petitioned the Kazimierz town council for the right to build its own interior wall, cutting across the western end of the older defensive walls in 1553. Due to the growth of the community, the walls were expanded again in 1608. Later requests to expand the walls were turned down The area between the walls was known as the Oppidum Judaeorum, the Jewish City, which represented only about one fifth of the geographical area of Kazimierz, but nearly half of its inhabitants. The Oppidum became the main spiritual and cultural centre of Polish Jewry, hosting many of Poland’s finest Jewish scholars, artists and craftsmen. Among its famous inhabitants were the Talmudist Moses Isserles, the Kabbalist Natan Szpiro, and the royal physician Shmuel bar Meshulam. The golden age of the Oppidum came to an end in 1782, when the Austrian Emperor Joseph II disbanded the kahal. In 1822, the walls were torn down, removing any physical reminder of the old borders between Jewish and Christian Kazimierz. In 1791, Kazimierz lost its status as a separate city and became a district of Kraków. The richer Jewish families quickly moved out of the overcrowded streets of Eastern Kazimierz. Because of the injunction against travel on the Sabbath, however, most Jewish families stayed relatively close to the historic synagogues in the old Oppidum, maintaining Kazimierz’s reputation as a “Jewish district” long after the concept ceased to have any administrative meaning. By the 1930s, Kraków had 120 officially registered synagogues and prayer houses scattered across the city and much of Jewish intellectual life had moved to new centres like Podgórze. In a tourist guide published in 1935, Meir Balaban, a Reform rabbi and professor of History at the University of Warsaw, lamented that the Jews who remained in the once vibrant Oppidum were “only the poor and the ultra-conservative.” However, this same exodus was the reason why most of the buildings in the Oppidum are preserved today in something close to their 18th century shape. Views of pre-war Kazimierz can be seen in the opening scenes of the classic, Yiddish movie, Yidl mitn Fidl, or Yidl with His Fiddle (Yiddish: יידל מיטן פֿידל), which was filmed in 1936, directed by Joseph Green and Jan Nowina-Przybylski, and stars Molly Picon. During the Second World War, the Jews of Krakow, including those in Kazimierz, were forced by the Nazis into a crowded ghetto in Podgórze, across the river. Most of them were later killed during the liquidation of the ghetto or in death camps. Post-War Kazimierz After the Second World War, Kazimierz, mostly deserted by its pre-war Jewish population, was populated by the poor and the sometimes criminal elements, becoming a backwater area with a reputation for being unsafe at night. Many old buildings were not repaired after the war devastation and became empty shells. At least one synagogue building was torn apart by scavengers seeking hidden Jewish treasure. However, since 1988, now a popular annual Jewish Cultural Festival has drawn Cracovians back to the heart of the Oppidum and re-introduced Jewish culture to a generation of Poles who have grown up without Poland’s historic Jewish community. In 1993, Steven Spielberg shot his film Schindler's List largely in Kazimierz (in spite of the fact that very little of the action historically took place there) and this drew international attention to Kazimierz. Since 1993, there have been parallel developments in the restoration of important historic sites in Kazimierz and a booming growth in Jewish-themed restaurants, bars, bookstores and souvenir shops. A Jewish youth group now meets weekly in Kazimierz and the Remuh Synagogue actively serves a small congregation of mostly elderly Cracovian Jews. ***** The Kraków Ghetto was one of five major Jewish ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the General Government for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation of Jews during German occupation of Poland in World War II. It was a staging point to begin dividing "able workers" from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life. The Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to Belzec and Płaszów, and exterminated at Auschwitz concentration camp. For more details on this topic, see Jewish ghettos in German-occupied PolandHistory Before the German attack on Poland, Kraków (Cracow) was an influential cultural centre for the 60,000–80,000 Polish Jews who lived there since the 13th century. Persecution of the Jewish population of Kraków began soon after the German troops entered the city on September 1, 1939, in the course of their invasion of Poland. Jews were obliged to take part in forced labor from September on. In November 1939, all Jews 12 years or older were required to wear identifying armbands. Throughout Kraków, synagogues were ordered closed and all their relics and valuables turned over to the Nazi authorities.By May 1940, the Nazi occupation authority announced that Kraków should become the "cleanest" city in the General Government (an occupied, but unannexed part of Poland). Massive deportation of Jews from the city were ordered. Of the more than 68,000 Jews in Kraków when the Germans invaded, only 15,000 workers and their families were permitted to remain. All other Jews were ordered out of the city, to be resettled into surrounding rural areas.The Kraków Ghetto was formally established on March 3, 1941 in the Podgórze district, not in the Jewish district of Kazimierz. Displaced Polish families from Podgórze took up residences in the former Jewish dwellings outside the newly established Ghetto. Meanwhile, 15,000 Jews were crammed into an area previously inhabited by 3,000 people who used to live in a district consisting of 30 streets, 320 residential buildings, and 3,167 rooms. As a result, one apartment was allocated to every four Jewish families, and many less fortunate lived on the street.The Ghetto was surrounded by walls that kept it separated from the rest of the city. All windows and doors that gave onto the "Aryan" side were ordered bricked up. Only four guarded entrances allowed traffic to pass through. In a grim foreshadowing of the near future, these walls contained panels in the shape of tombstones. Small sections of the wall still remain today. Young people of the Akiva youth movement, who had undertaken the publication of an underground newsletter, HeHaluc HaLohem ("The Fighting Pioneer"), joined forces with other Zionists to form a local branch of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ŻOB, Polish: Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa), and organize resistance in the ghetto, supported by the Polish underground Armia Krajowa. The group carried out a variety of resistance activities including the bombing of the Cyganeria cafe, a gathering place of Nazi officers. Unlike in Warsaw, their efforts did not lead to a general uprising before the ghetto was liquidated. From May 30, 1942 onward, the Nazis implemented systematic deportations from the Ghetto to surrounding concentration camps. Thousands of Jews were transported in the succeeding months as part of the Aktion Krakau headed by SS-Oberführer Julian Scherner. Jews were assembled on Zgody Square first and then escorted to the railway station in Prokocim. The first transport consisted of 7,000 people, the second, of additional 4,000 Jews deported to Bełżec extermination camp on 5 June 1942. On March 13-March 14, 1943 the final 'liquidation' of the ghetto was carried out under the command of SS-Untersturmführer Amon Göth. Eight thousand Jews deemed able to work were transported to the Plaszow labor camp. Those deemed unfit for work – some 2,000 Jews – were killed in the streets of the ghetto on those days. Any remaining were sent to Auschwitz.Notable people Movie director Roman Polanski, a survivor of the Ghetto, evoked his childhood experiences in his memoir, Roman. Polański recalls the early months resembled normalcy; although the peacefulness was sometimes punctuated by fear. Town residents dined out, listened to town bands, and children, such as Polański, socialized in the snow. Roma Ligocka, Polish artist and author, and a first cousin to Roman Polański who, as a small girl, was rescued and survived the Ghetto, many years later wrote a novel based on her experiences, The Girl in the Red Coat: A Memoir. She is mistakenly thought to be portrayed in the film Schindler's List. The scene, however, was constructed on the memories of Zelig Burkhut, survivor of Plaszow (and other work camps). When being interviewed by Spielberg before the making for the film, Burkhut told of a young girl wearing a pink coat, no older than four, who was shot by a Nazi officer right before his eyes. The only working pharmacy enclosed within the Kraków Ghetto belonged to Tadeusz Pankiewicz, a Polish pharmacist permitted by the German authorities to operate his "Under the Eagle Pharmacy" there upon his request. In recognition of his heroic deeds in rescuing Jews from the Ghetto he was awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem. Pankiewicz published a book about his time in the ghetto called The Cracow Ghetto Pharmacy (ISBN 0896041158).Oskar Schindler, a German businessman, came to Kraków because of the labor available from the Ghetto. He selected employees to work in his enamelware plant, and came to view them sympathetically. In 1942, Schindler watched Ghetto inhabitants brutally rounded up for transportation to Płaszów, and subsequently worked furiously to save Jews interned there, events portrayed in the Steven Spielberg film Schindler's List. In an especially dramatic event, 300 of Schindler's workers were deported to the Auschwitz death camp despite his efforts, and he personally intervened to save them.Mordechai Gebirtig was one of the most influential and popular writers of Yiddish songs and poems. He died there in 1942. Miriam Akavia, an Israeli writer, survived the Kraków ghetto and concentration camps. Renowned dermatologist and co-discoverer of Reyes Syndrome, Dr Jim (Jacob) Baral was also a Krakow Ghetto survivor.