1956 Israel Hebrew Firefighting Illust Jewish Guide Book War Photos Judaica Vr
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1956 Israel Hebrew Firefighting Illust Jewish Guide Book War Photos Judaica Vr:
DESCRIPTION : In the state of ISRAEL , Being constantly involved in its DEFENSE wars , Being continuously ATTACKED and BOMBARDED by enemy neighbour countries as well as TERRORISTS , Aiming MISILES , ROCKETS and SHELLS on itstowns and villages , FIREFIGHTING is a MAJOR NECESSITY . This ORIGINAL Hebrew book , Originaly written in HEBREW for Israeli FIREFIGHTERS as well as regular citizens , DEPICTS the THEORY and PRACTICE of FIREFIGHTING specificaly adopted to the Israeli circumstances both in PEACE times as well as in WAR and EMERGENCY times . The book , Richly illustrated and photographed , Was written in Hebrew by Ephraim Dekel , Published in 1956 by the "ISRAELI CENTER For FIREFIGHTING" . SIGNED and INSCRIBED by the AUTHOR. The USEFUL Fire fighting GUIDE contains numerous subjects , illustrations , tables , Lists of fire fighting equipment , Materials , Vehicles etc with Hebrew - English INDEX and an annex of various advertisements of FIREFIGHTING related goods. Original HC . Silvered embossed headings. Cloth spine. Illustrated DJ . 8.5 x 5.5 " . 260 throughout illustrated and photographed pp . Quite good condition. Slight DJ wear. Age tanning of leaves , Especialy margins. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal .SHIPPMENT : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $18 .Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . Will be sent within3-5 days after payment . Kindly note that duration of Int'l registered airmail is around 14 days.
MORE DETAILS : Firefighting is the act of extinguishing destructivefires. Afirefighterfights these fires to prevent destruction of life, property and the Environment. Firefighting is a highly technical profession which requires years of training and education in order to become proficient.Firefighters' dutiesFirefighters' goals are to save life, property and the Environment. A fire can rapidly spread and endanger many lives; however, with modern firefighting techniques, catastrophe is usually, but not always, avoided. To prevent fires from starting, a firefighter's duties include public education and conducting fire inspections. Because firefighters are often thefirst respondersto people in critical conditions, firefighters provide many other valuable services to the community they serve, such as:Emergency medical services, asemergency medical techniciansor as licensedparamedics, staffingambulances. Hazardous materials mitigation (HAZMAT) HeavyrescueSearch and rescueCommunity disaster support In addition, firefighters also service in specialized fields, such as:Aircraft/airport rescueWildland fire suppression Shipboard and military fire and rescu Tactical paramedic support ("SWAT medics") In the US, firefighters also serve the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) asUrban search and rescue(USAR) team members. For example, Sullivan City Fire Department, Palmview Fire Department, Rio Grande City Fire Department, La Grulla Fire Department.Hazards caused by fireThe primary risk to people in a fire issmoke inhalation(breathingin smoke; most of those killed in fires die from this, not from burns). The risks of smoke include: suffocation due to the fire consuming or displacing all theoxygenfrom theair; poisonous gases produced by the fire; aspirating heated smoke that can burn the inside of thelungs. As an example,plasticsinside a car can generate 200,000 m3of smoke at a rate of 20-30 m3/sec.. Firefighters carry self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (an open-circuit positive pressure compressed air system) to prevent smoke inhalation. These are notoxygentanks. They carry compressed air. Obvious risks stem from the effects of heat. Even without contact with the flames (conduction), there are a number of comparably serious risks:burnsfrom radiated heat, contact with a hot object, hot gases (e.g., air), steam and hot and/or equipped with personal protective equipment (PPE) that includes fire-resistant clothing (nomexorpolybenzimidazole fiber(PBI)) and helmets that limit the transmission of heat towards the body. The heat can make pressurised gas cylinders and tanksexplode, producing what is called aBLEVE(Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion).. Some chemical products such asammonium nitratefertilizerscan also explode. Explosions can causephysical traumaor potentially Heat causes human flesh to burn as fuel causing severe medical problems. Depending upon the heat of the fire, burns can occur in a fraction of a second. Afirst degree burn(on the skin surface) is extremely painful. A second degree burn is a burn into the skin, and can cause shock, infections, and dehydration and if left untreated often results in death. Third degree burns compromise nerve tissue and are not painful, however the edges of a third degree burn are usually second and first degree burns which cause severe pain. Third degree burns leave muscles and internal organs exposed from completely destroyed skin. If the person survives the shock and exposure to germs, medical treatment is extremely difficult. Additional risks of firefighting encompass the following: vision can be obscured by the smoke: a person inside the building may not be able to see, can fall, or become disoriented and lost; becoming trapped and killed by the smoke or fire. the building can collapse on its occupants.Reconnaissance and reading the fireThe first step of the operations is a reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire (which may not be obvious for an indoor fire, especially when there are no witnesses), and spot the specific risks and the possible casualties. Any fire occurring outside may not require reconnaissance; on the other hand, a fire in a cellar or an underground car park with only a few centimeters of visibility may require a long reconnaissance to spot the seat of the fire. The "reading" of the fire is the analysis by the firefighters of the forewarnings of a thermal accident (flashover,backdraft,smoke explosion), which is performed during the reconnaissance and the fire suppression maneuvers. The main signs are: hot zones, which can be detected with a gloved hand, especially by touching a door before opening it; the presence of soot on the windows, which usually means that combustion is incomplete and thus there is a lack of air smoke goes in and out from the door frame, as if the fire breathes, which usually means a lack of air to support combustion; spraying water on the ceiling with a short pulse of a diffused spray (e.g.conewith an opening angle of 60°) to test the heat of the smoke; when the temperature is moderate, the water falls down in drops with a sound of rain; when the temperature is high, itvaporizeswith a hiss. Ideally, part of reconnaissance is to consult an existing preplan for the building. This would provide knowledge of existing structures, fire fighter hazards, and can include strategies and tactics.Science of extinguishmentFire ElementsThere are four elements needed to start and sustain a fire and/or flame. These elements are classified in the “Fire Tetrahedron”. These four elements of the “Fire Tetrahedron” are A. Reducing Agent (Fuel B.HeatC. Self-sustained chemical Reaction D. Oxidizing Agent (Oxygen) A. The reducing agent, or fuel, is the substance or material that is being oxidized or burned in the combustion process. The most common fuels contain carbon along with combinations of hydrogen and oxygen. B. Heat is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron. When heat comes into contact with a fuel, it provides the energy necessary for ignition, causes the continuous production and ignition of fuel vapors or gases so that the combustion reaction can continue, and causes the vaporization of solid and liquid fuels. C. The self-sustained chemical reaction is a complex reaction that requires a fuel, an oxidizer, and heat energy to come together in a very specific way. A chain reaction is a series of reaction that occur n sequence with the results of each individual reaction being added to the rest. This happens in the science of fire, but is self-sustaining in that it continues without interruption. D. An oxidizing agent is a material or substance that when the proper conditions exist will release gases, including oxygen. This is crucial to the sustainment of a flame or fire. ExtinguishmentA fire can be extinguished or put out by taking away any of the four components of the “Fire Tetrahedron”. This section will discuss how the most widely used method of extinguishment of fire is accomplished. Application of Water This first way water extinguishes a fire is by cooling. This cooling process removes the heat from the fire. This is possible through water’s ability to absorb massive amounts of heat by converting to steam. Without the heat the fuel no longer has the conditions required to produce oxygen to sustain the fire. The second way water extinguishes a fire is by smothering the fire. When water is heated to its boiling point it converts to a gas called water vapor or steam. When this conversion takes place is dilutes the oxygen in the air. This lowers the amount of oxygen in the air below what a flame requires to burn. This can be done with water by adding Foam. Another way to extinguish a fire is fuel removal. This can be accomplished by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid fuel in the path of a fire. In addition, allowing the fire to burn until all the fuel is consumed. At that point, the fire will self extinguish. The fourth and final way of extinguishment is chemical flame inhibition. This can be accomplished through some dry chemical and halogenated agents. These agents interrupt the combustion reaction and stop flaming. This method is effective on gas and liquid fuels because they must flame to burn. Often, the main way to extinguish a fire is to spray with water. The water has two roles: in contact with the fire, itvaporizes, and this vapour displaces the oxygen (the volume of water vapour is 1,700 times greater than liquid water, at 1000 degrees Fahrenheit this expansion is over 4,000 times); leaving the fire with not enough combustive agent to continue, and it dies out.the vaporization of water absorbs the heat; it cools thesmoke, air, walls, objects in the room, etc., that could act as further fuel, and thus prevents one of the means that fires grow, which is by "jumping" to nearby heat/fuel sources to start new fires, which then combine. The extinction is thus a combination of "asphyxia" and cooling. The flame itself is suppressed by asphyxia, but the cooling is the most important element to master a fire in a closed area. Water may be accessed by pressurizedfire hydrant, pumped from water sources such as lakes or rivers, delivered bytanker truck, or dropped from aircraft tankers in fightingforest fires.Open air fireFor fires in the open, the seat of the fire is sprayed with a straight spray: the cooling effect immediately follows the "asphyxia" by vapor, and reduces the amount of water required. A straight spray is used so the water arrives massively to the seat without being vaporized before. A strong spray may also have a mechanical effect: it can disperse the combustible product and thus prevent the fire from starting again. The fire is always fed with air, but the risk to people is limited as they can move away, except in the case they can be surrounded by the flames. But there might be a big risk of expansion. Spray is aimed at a surface, or object: for this reason, the strategy is sometimes called two-dimensionalattack or 2D attack. It might be necessary to protect specific items (house, gas tank) against infrared radiation, and thus to use a diffused spray between the fire and the object. Breathing apparatus is often required as there is still the risk of breathing in smoke or poisonous gases.Closed volume fireUntil the 1970s, fires were usually attacked while they declined, so the same strategy that was used for open air fires was effective. In recent times, fires are now attacked in their development phase as: firefighters arrive sooner;thermal insulationof houses confines the heat; modern materials, especially thepolymers, produce a lot more heat than traditional materials etc.). Additionally, in these conditions, there is a greater risk ofbackdraftand offlashover. Spraying of the seat of the fire directly can have unfortunate and dramatic consequences: the water pushes air in front of it, so the fire is supplied with extra oxygen before the water reaches it. This activation of the fire, and the mixing of the gases produced by the water flow, can create a flashover. The most important issue is not the flames, but control of the fire, i.e. the cooling of the smoke that can spread and start distant fires, and that endangers the lives of people, including firefighters. The volume must be cooled before the seat is treated. This strategy originally of Swedish (Mats Rosander & Krister Giselsson) origin, was further adapted by London Fire Officer Paul Grimwood following a decade of operational use in London's busy west-end district between 1984-94 and termed three-dimensionalattack, or 3D attack. Use of a diffused spray was first proposed by Chief Lloyd Layman ofParkersburg, West VirginiaFire Department, at the Fire Department Instructor's Conference (FDIC) in 1950 held inMemphis, Tennessee, U.S.A. Using Grimwood's modified '3D attack strategy' the ceiling is first sprayed with short pulses of a diffused spray: it cools the smoke, thus the smoke is less likely to start a fire when it moves away; the pressure of the gas drops when it cools (law ofideal gases), thus it also reduces the mobility of the smoke and avoids a "backfire" of water vapour; it creates an inert "water vapour sky" which preventsroll-over(rolls of flames on the ceiling created by the burning of hot gases) Only short pulses of water must be sprayed, otherwise the spraying modifies the equilibrium, and the gases mix instead of remaining stratified: the hot gases (initially at the ceiling) move around the room and the temperature rises at the ground, which is dangerous for firefighters. An alternative is to cool all the atmosphere by spraying the whole atmosphere as if drawing letters in the air ("pencilling"). The modern methods for an urban fire dictate the use of a massive initial water flow, e.g. 500 L/min for eachfire hose. The aim is to absorb as much heat as possible at the beginning to stop the expansion of the fire, and to reduce the smoke. When the flow is too small, the cooling is not sufficient, and the steam that is produced can burn firefighters (the drop of pressure is too small and the vapor is pushed back). Although it may seem paradoxical, the use of a strong flow with an efficient fire hose and an efficient strategy (diffused sprayed, small droplets) requires a smaller amount of water: once the temperature is lowered, only a limited amount of water is necessary to suppress the fire seat with a straight spray. For a living room of 50 m² (60 square yards), the required amount of water is estimated as 60 L (15 gallons). French fire-fighters used an alternative method in the 1970s: they sprayed water on the hot walls to create a water vapour atmosphere and asphyxiate the fire. This method is no longer used because it was risky: the pressure created pushed the hot gases and vapour towards the firefighters, causing severe burns, and pushed the hot gases into other rooms where they could start a new fire.Asphyxiating a fireIn some cases, the use of water is undesirable: some chemical productsreactwith water and produce poisonous gases, or even burn in contact with water (e.g.sodium); some products float on water, etc.); a burning layer can then spread and extend; in case of a pressurised gas tank, it is necessary to avoid heat shocks that may damage the tank: the resulting decompression may produce aBLEVE. It is then necessary to asphyxiate the fire. This can be done in two ways: some chemical products react with the fuel and stop the combustion; a layer of water-basedfire retardant foamis projected on the product by the fire hose, to keep the oxygen in air separated from the fuel.Tactical ventilation or isolation of the fireOne of the main risks of a fire is thesmoke: it carries heat and poisonous gases, and obscures vision. In the case of a fire in a closed location (building), two different strategies may be used: isolation of the fire, or positive pressure ventilation. Paul Grimwood introduced the concept of tactical ventilation in the 1980s to encourage a more well thought out approach to this aspect of firefighting. Following work with Warrington Fire Research Consultants (FRDG 6/94) his terminology and concepts were adopted officially by the UK fire service and are now referred to throughout revised Home Office training manuals (1996-97). Paul Grimwood's original definition of his 1991 unified strategy stated that .... 'tactical ventilationis either the venting, or containment (isolation) actions by on-scene firefighters, used to take control from the outset of a fire's burning regime, in an effort to gain tactical advantage during interior structural firefighting life safety, fireextinguishment, and property conservation. First, it pulls fire away from trapped occupants when properly used. It may also "limit fire spread by channeling fire toward nearby openings and allows fire fighters to safely attack the fire" as well as limit smoke, heat, and water damage..Positive pressure ventilation(PPV) consists of using afanto create excess pressure in a part of the building; this pressure will push the smoke and the heat away, and thus secure the rescue and fire fighting operations. It is necessary to have an exit for the smoke, to know the building very well to predict where the smoke will go, and to ensure that the doors remain open by wedging or propping them. The main risk of this method is that it may activate the fire, or even create aflashover, e.g. if the smoke and the heat accumulate in a dead end. Hydraulic ventilation is the process of directing a stream from the inside of a structure out the window using a fog pattern.. This effectively will pull smoke out of room. Smoke ejectors may also be used for this purpose. ******* Firefighters, or firemen, are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardousfiresthat threaten civilian populations and property, to rescue people from car accidents, collapsed and burning buildings and other such situations. The increasing complexity of modern industrialized life with an increase in the scale of hazards has stimulated both advances in firefighting technology and a broadening of the firefighter-rescuer's remit. They sometimes provideemergency medical services. The fire service, or fire and rescue service also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, are some of theemergency services. Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, fromwildland areastourban areas, and on boardships.Firefighting worldwideIn some countries, including Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States, there are often paid, or professional career firefighters working. Additionally, there are volunteer firefighters (who are theoretically unpaid) and retained firefighters (sometimes called on call firefighters, who are paid for the specific time they are on duty, i.e. permanent part-time career firefighters) on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In such countries as theUnited KingdomandIreland, the use of additional retained firefighters is standard. InPortugal, the use of volunteer firefighters is standard, along with career firefighters. InAustraliathere are volunteer brigades which are mostly unpaid rural services (although traditionally they are paid by their employers if called out during working hours). InGermany, volunteer fire departments, called the "Freiwillige Feuerwehr", are established in every town: even the biggest German city,Berlin, with more than 3.6 million inhabitants, has volunteer firefighters besides a career fire service. In fact, only 100 German cities (most of them are towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants) have a career fire service, called the "Berufsfeuerwehr," but in every one of these cities a volunteer fire service exists, too. In cities with a career fire service, volunteer fire brigades support the career fire service at big fires, accidents and disasters. Many of the so-called volunteer departments (usually in towns with 35,000 to 150,000 inhabitants), except in very small towns and villages, are a mixed service of a core of career firemen who are supported by true volunteer firefighters should the need arise. However, the official title of those departments is nevertheless "volunteer fire service". The structure inAustriais similar to Germany. There are just six career fire services As of 2007, some 4,527 volunteer fire departments, the back-bone of the Austrian fire service, could rely on about 320,000 men and women voluntary firefighters as active members.Fire departments exist in even the smallest villages, where they contribute to community life, usually by organizing fairs and other fund-raising activities. InVenezuela, there are, beside the types mentioned above, University Firefighters. They attend any emergency inside the campus and the zones around; however, their most important job is to develop new technologies in this area, thanks to the high level of education of its members: in the Simón Bolívar University Volunteer Fire Department, around 80% of its members have a university degree or are in the process of obtaining one. InIndiamunicipalities are bound by law to have a fire brigade and participate in a regional fire service. Each city has its own fire brigade. The main functions of firefighting services in India are provision of fire protection and of services during emergencies such as building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees, appropriate action during natural calamities, and so on. Industrial corporations also have their own firefighting service. Each airport and seaport has its own firefighting units. InJapan, fire services are organized on a city/town/village basis. There are 894 fire headquarters and 3,598 volunteer fire corps. These have a total of 155,000 active career firefighters and 21,000 vehicles with 4,800 fire houses;920,000 volunteer firefighters share an additional 51,000 trucks. InRomania, theRomanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situationsis responsible for fire fighting and civil defense.Goals of firefightingAside from the main task of extinguishing fires, the goals of firefighting are (in order) saving lives, saving property, and protecting the Environment. Firefighting is an inherently difficult occupation. As such, the skills required for safe operations are regularly practiced during training evolutions throughout a firefighters career. In the United States, the preeminent fire training and standards organization is theNational Fire Protection Association(NFPA). Often initial firefighting skills are taught during a local, regional, or state approvedfire academy. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and Para-medicine may also be taught at this time. Firefighters work closely with other emergency response agencies, most particularly local and state police departments. As every fire scene is technically acrime sceneuntil deemed otherwise by a qualifiedinvestigator, there is often overlap between the responsibilities of responding firefighters and police officers such as evidence and scene protection, initial observations of first respondents, andchain of evidenceissues.The increasing role of firefighters in providing emergency medical services also brings firefighters into common overlap with law enforcement. One example of this is a common state law requiring all gunshot wounds to be reported to law enforcement agencies. Fire fighting has several basic skills: prevention, self preservation,rescue, preservation of property andfire control. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, extinguishing, ventilation, and salvage and overhaul. Search and Rescue, which has already been mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing and attempts to ensure that no place simultaneously has sufficient heat, fuel and air to allow ignition and combustion. Most prevention programs are directed at controlling the energy of activation (heat).Fire suppression systemshave a proven record for controlling and extinguishing unwanted fires. Many fire officials recommend that every building, including residences, havefire sprinklersystems. Correctly working sprinklers in a residencegreatlyreduce the risk of death from a fire. With the small rooms typical of a residence, one or two sprinklers can cover most rooms. In addition, a major duty of fire services is the regular inspection of buildings to ensure they are up to the current buildingfire codes, which are enforced so that a building can sufficiently resist fire spread, potential hazards are located, and to ensure that occupants can be safely evacuated, commensurate with the risks involved. Other methods of fire prevention are by directing efforts to reduce known hazardous conditions or by preventing dangerous acts before tragedy strikes. This is normally accomplished in many innovative ways such as conducting presentations, distributing safety brochures, providing news articles, writing public safety announcements(PSAs) or establishing meaningful displays in well-visited areas. Ensuring that each household has working smoke alarms, is educated in the proper techniques of fire safety, has an evacuation route and rendezvous point is of top priority in public education for most fire prevention teams in almost all fire department localities. Self-preservation is very critical. The basic technique firefighters use is to know where they are, and to avoid hazards. Current standards in the United States recommend that firefighters work in teams, using a "two-in, two-out" rule whenever in anIDLH(Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) Environment. Tools are generally carried at all times and are important for not only forcible entry but also for self rescue. A Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) delivers air to the firefighter through a full face mask and is worn to protect against smoke inhalation, toxic fumes, and super heated gasses. A special device called aPersonal Alert Safety System(PASS) is commonly worn independently or as a part of theSCBAto alert others when a firefighter stops moving for a specified period of time or manually operates the device. The PASS device sounds an alarm that can assist another firefighter (Firefighter Assist and Search Team), in locating the firefighter in distress. Firefighters often carry personal self rescue ropes. The ropes are generally 30 feet long and can provide a firefighter (that has enough time to deploy the rope) a partially controlled exit out an elevated window. Lack of a personal rescue rope is cited in the deaths of two New York City Firefighters, Lt. John Bellew and Lt. Curtis Meyran, who died after they jumped from a fourth floor of a burning apartment building in the Bronx. Of the four firefighters who jumped and survived only one of them had a self rescue rope. Since the incident the Fire Department of New York City has issued self rescue ropes to their firefighters. In the United States, 25% of fatalities to firefighters are caused by vehicle accidents while responding to or returning from an incident. Many firefighters are also injured or killed by vehicles while working at an incident (Paulison 2005). Recently[when?]a new enforcement being made by departments requires, firefighters to wear a bright yellow reflective vest over their turnout coats while working vehicle accident to be more visible to the other drivers on the road.However, a large percentage of firefighters also succumb to heart disease, in the line of duty.RescueRescue operations consist of searching for and removing trapped occupants also be rescued, if resources and conditions permit. aidare performed outside, as removal from the hazardous atmosphere is the primary goal in preserving life. Search patterns include movement against room walls (to prevent rescuers from becoming lost or disoriented) and methodical searches of specific areas by designated teams. Unlike a fire control team, a rescue team typically moves faster, but has no hose to follow out to safety through the smoky darkness. A rescue rope may be needed for tethering a team involved in exceptionally dangerous conditions. Incident commanders also arrange for standby search and rescue teams to assist if firefighters become lost, trapped, or injured. Such teams are commonly, and often interchangeably, known asRapid Intervention Crews(RIC), orFirefighter Assist and Search Teams(FAST). According to "two-in, two-out", the only time it is permissible for a team of firefighters to enter a burning structure without backup in place outside is when they are operating in what is known as "Rescue Mode". Rescue Mode occurs when firefighters have arrived at the scene, and it is readily apparent that there are occupants trapped inside who need immediate rescue. At such a time, properly equipped firefighters (exercising good judgment tempered by training and experience) may enter the structure and proceed directly to victims in need of rescue, RIC will then be put in place when resources permit. TheWorcester Cold Storage Warehouse fireprovides a stark example of disoriented rescuers perishing when their air supply was exhausted during a fruitless primary search and subsequent RIC searches. Searches for trapped victims are exhaustively detailed, often including searches ofcupboards,closets, and underbeds. The search is divided into two stages, the primary and secondary. The primary search is conducted quickly and thoroughly, typically beginning in the area closest to the fire as it is subjected to the highest risk of exposure. The secondary search only begins once the fire is under control, and is always (resources and personnel permitting) performed by a different team from that which did the primary search. Rescue operations may also involve the extrication of victims of motor vehicle crashes (abbreviated MVC). Here firefighters usespreaders,cutters, andhydraulic rams, collectively calledhydraulic rescue tools—known better to the public as Jaws of Life—to remove metal from the patient, followed by actually removing the patient, usually on a backboard with collar, and transferring to a waiting ambulance crew in the cold zone. More technical forms of rescue include subsets such asrope rescue,swiftwater rescue,confined space rescue, andtrench rescue. These types of rescue are often extremely hazardous and physically demanding. They also require extensive technical training. NFPA regulation 1006 and 1670 state that a "rescuer" must have medical training to perform any technical rescue operation. Accordingly, firefighters involved in rescue operations have some kind of medical training as first responders, emergency medical controlFire control (orfire fighting) consists of depriving Agent),oxygen(Oxidizing Agent),heatand/or the chemical chain reaction that are necessary to sustain itself or re-kindle (also known as the four components ofThe Fire Tetrahedron). Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment to accomplish this task. Some of their tools include ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, andfire extinguishers. Very frequent training and refresher training is required. Structure fires may be attacked, generally, either by "interior" or "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two-in, two out" rule, may advance hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows or other openings, or against other nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. A proper command structure will plan and coordinate the various teams and equipment to safely execute each tactic.Structure firesBuildings that are made of flammable materials such aswoodare different from so called "fire-resistant" buildings such as concrete high-rises. Generally, a "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor. Other floors can be safe simply by preventing smoke inhalation and damage. All buildings suspected of being on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating. While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke, water, and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff (such as gas and electricity) is typically an early priority of arriving fire crews. Furthermore, fire prevention can take on a special meaning for property where hazardous materials are being used or stored. Some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but often serve specific needs. For example, during "ventilation" firefighters are often forced to open holes in the roof or floors of a structure (called "vertical ventilation") or open windows or walls (called "horizontal ventilation") to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure. Such ventilation methods are also used to locate victims quicker as visibility increases and to help preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals due to the poisonous gases inside of the structure. Vertical ventilation is absolutely vital to firefighter safety in the event of Releasing the flammable gasses through the roof often eliminates the possibility of a backdraft and by the removal of heat the possibility of a flashover is reduced significantly. Flashovers, due to their intense heat (900–1200° Fahrenheit) and explosive temperaments are almost always fatal to firefighter personnel. Precautionary methods, such as busting a window out, often reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on. Firefighter safety is the number one priority. Whenever possible, movable property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a heavy cloth tarp (a "salvage cover"). Other steps may be taken to divert or remove fire flow runoff (thus salvaging property by avoiding unnecessary damage), retrieving/protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul, and boarding windows, roofs and doors against the elements and looters.HAZMATFirefighters in the United States are frequently the first responders toHAZMATincidents. TheOccupational Safety and Health four standards of training First responder awareness level, First responder operations level,Hazardous materials technician, and Hazardous materials typically trained to the awareness level, whereas career firefighters are often trained to the operations level or better.Occupational health and safetyCardiovascular diseaseFirefighting has long been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. In theUnited States, the most common cause of on-duty fatalities for firefighters is sudden cardiac death. In addition to personal factors that may predispose an individual tocoronary artery diseaseor othercardiovascular diseases, occupational exposures can significantly increase a firefighter's risk. For instance,carbon monoxide, present in nearly all fire Environments, andhydrogen cyanide, formed during the combustion and other substances interfere with the transport of oxygen in the body.Hypoxiacan then lead to heart injury. In addition, chronic exposure toparticulate matterinsmokeis associated may contribute tohypertensionand possibly ischemic heart disease. Other factors associated with firefighting, such asstress,heat stress, and heavy physical exertion, also increase the risk of cardiovascular events.Structural collapsesAnother leading cause of death during firefighting is structural collapse of part of a burning building (e.g. a wall, floor, ceiling, roof, ortruss system). Structural collapse, which often occurs without warning, may crush or trap on-duty firefighters. To avoid loss of life, all on-duty firefighters should maintain two-way communication with theincident commanderand be equipped with aPersonal Alert Safety System device(PASS).Communication and command structureThe expedient and accurate handling of fire alarms or calls are significant factors in the successful outcome of any incident. Fire department communications play a critical role in that successful outcome. Fire department communications include the methods by which the public can notify the communications center of an emergency, the methods by which the center can notify the proper fire fighting forces, and the methods by which information is exchanged at the scene. A telecommunicator (often referred to as adispatcher)has a role different but just as important as other emergency personnel. The telecommunicator must process calls from unknown and unseen individuals, usually calling under stressful conditions. He/she must be able to obtain complete, reliable information from the caller and prioritize requests for assistance. It is the dispatcher's responsibility to bring order to chaos. While some fire departments are large enough to utilize their own telecommunication dispatcher, most rural and small areas rely on a central dispatcher to provide handling of fire, rescue and police services. Firefighters are trained to usecommunicationsequipment to receive alarms, give and receive commands, request assistance, and report on conditions. Since firefighters from different agencies routinely provide mutual aid to each other, and routinely operate at incidents where other emergency services are present, it is essential to have structures in place to establish a unified chain of command, and share information between agencies. The U.S.Federal Emergency Management Agencyhas established aNational Incident Management System. One component of this system is theIncident Command System. All radio communication in the United States is under authorization from theFederal Communications Commission(FCC); as such, fire departments that operate radio equipment must hold radio licenses from the FCC.Ten codeswere popular in the early days of radio equipment because of poor transmission and reception. Advances in modern radio technology have reduced the need for ten-codes and many departments have converted to simple English (clear fire brigades inCommonwealthcountries (except Canada) have a more 'civilianized' nomenclature, traditionally structured in this manner: Firefighter Leading Firefighter (or Crew Commander)Sub Officer(or Watch Commander)Station Officer(or Station Commander/Manager) Assistant Divisional Officer Divisional Officer Assistant Chief Fire Officer (Scotland: Assistant Firemaster)Chief Fire Officer(Scotland: Firemaster) Most firefighters wear yellow helmets, butStation Officersand above wear white helmets. Though these colours are not universal and depend upon the service. Rank is further indicated by black stripes around the helmets.FranceFrench civilian fire services, which historically are derived from French armysapperunits, use standard French Army ranks. The highest rank in manydepartmentsis full Colonel.USAIn theUnited Stateshelmet colors often denote a fire fighter's rank or position. In general, white helmets denote chief officers, while red helmets denote company officers, but the specific meaning of a helmet's color or style varies from region to region and department to department. The rank of an officer in the U.S. fire service is most commonly denoted by a number of speaking trumpets, a reference to amegaphonelike device used in the early days of the fire service, although typically they are called "bugles" in today's parlance. Ranks proceed from one (lieutenant) to five (fire chief) bugles. Traditional ranks in American Fire Departments that exist but not always be utilized in all cities or towns include: Firefighter (no bugles) Engineer/Technician/Sergeant (no bugles) Lieutenant (1 bugle) Captain (2 either traditionally side by side or less usually crossed bugles) Battalion Chief (2 either side by side or more traditionally crossed bugles) Division Chief or Deputy/Deputy Asst. Chief/Commissioner (3 crossed bugles) Assistant Chief/Commissioner (4 crossed bugles) Chief/Commissioner (5 crossed bugles) The basic US fire department unit is a small unit called a "company" (under a lieutenant) which is equivalent to a commonwealth "watch" (under a sub-officer). A US fire captain is thus often equivalent to a commonwealth sub-officer, and a US fire lieutenant to a commonwealth leading firefighter. Still some other American Fire Departments such the FDNY use military rank insignia in addition or instead of the traditional bugles. Additionally, officers ontruck companieshave been known to use rank insignias shaped like axes for Lieutenants (1) and Captains (2). The various grades of Divisional Officers and CFOs are indicated by one or moreimpellerson theirepaulettesor the collar of their firefighting uniform, as opposed to the bugle insignia used in the USA.Firefighter equipmentA partial list of some equipment typically used by firefighters: Hand tools, such as Flat-head and pick-head axePike poleHalligan barFlashlightSpanner wrenchCircular ("K-12"), Cutters Edge, and/or chain saws Jaws of life extraction toolPersonal protective equipment("PPE") designed to withstand water and high temperatures, such asBunker gear, including turnout jacket and pantsSelf-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)Helmet, face mask and/or visor; climing helmets Boots, gloves, andNomexand Carbon flash hoodsPersonal Alert Safety System (PASS) deviceHandheld radio, pager, or other communication devices Vehicle extrication tools, such asHydraulic rescue toolsThermal Imaging CameraHistory of fire brigadesThe history of organized combating of structural fires dates back at least to AncientEgypt. Many people put out fires back in biblical times, but whether people did it for a living is unknown. Firefighters were known in theRoman Republic, but only as privately organised and funded groups operating as more of a business than a service. This ad-hoc approach was later revolutionised during thePrincipateto become the first truly professional firefighting service.Augustuscalled for the creation of a trained fire guard, paid and equipped by the state. Known as theVigiles, they were organised into cohorts and also served as a night watch and a city police force. Today, fire and rescue remains a mix of paid, call, and volunteer responders. The UK has the retained fire service, whereby fire fighters are on call with pagers from their homes and/or place of work.Miscellaneous traditionsIn popular literature, firefighters are sometimes depicted withDalmatiandogs. This breed originated in southern Europe to assist with herdinglivestockand run along withhorses, and in the days of horse-drawn fire vehicles, the horses were usually released on arrival at the fire and the Dalmatians would lead the horses through traffic and to a safe place to wait until the fire was out. Dalmatians also filled the role of protecting the horses' feet from other dogs as equipment was being transported to the fire scene. In reality, most fire dogs weremuttspulled from the street (and thus cheaper to acquire). In addition, Dalmatians have a reputation for skittishness and congenital defects, such asdeafnessdue to inbreeding. Many fire companies around the world, especially in the United States, develop annualBeefcake calendars. In these calendars, handsome and/or muscular firefighters appear scantily clad and sometimes cavorting. Calendar proceeds function as fund raisers for their fire department and for charities. Other forms of fund raising may include traditional Firemen's Balls (gala events attended by fire-fighters and supporters from the community), community fairs, and ding-a-ling car washes (where the price is whatever donation one wishes). 4939