1956 Torah Bible "exodus" Art Jewish Children Book Judaica Lithographs Hebrew

1956 Torah Bible

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1956 Torah Bible "exodus" Art Jewish Children Book Judaica Lithographs Hebrew:

DESCRIPTION : Up for sale is a UNIQUE and VERY RARE profusely illustrated artistic and poetic version of the biblical book of "EXODUS" , The story of the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt following the death of Joseph their departure under the leadership of MOSES , the revelations at SINAI (including The TEN COMMANDMENTS ) , and their wanderings in the wilderness up to the borders of ERETZ ISRAEL - CANAAN. The CHILDREN BOOK in the name of "SHIRAT HAYAM - THE SEA SINGING" was published in 1956 ( Dated ) by "ATASA" Tel Aviv Israel. A few FULL PAGE LITHOGRAPHS on separate leaves bound with the book as issued. These lithographs were creted by the Israeli nartist of Polish origin PERLI PELZIG. Original illustrated HC with STONE LITHOGRAPH illustration. 6 x 9 " . 36 pp. Very good condition. Quite clean. Tightly bound. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images )Book will be sent inside a protective envelope .

PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal .

SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail $18 . Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.
MORE DETAILS :Return of the 'Wunderkind' Perli Pelzig Exhibition Opens in Beverly Hills BEVERLY HILLS, Calif.When the doors of California Federal Bank at the corner of Wilshire and Canon in Beverly Hills reopen at 7:30 on December 12th, those that enter the otherwise conservative mahogany wood paneled lobby will be treated to a rare sight -- an exhibition of world renowned artist Perli Pelzig. The exhibition, which will ran through January 26th is a gift from Perli in honor of the merger between the former Glendale Federal Bank and California Federal Bank, and will feature some of Pelzig's greatest works. Hosting an exhibition could be considered quite a feat considering that many of Perli's works wouldn't fit through the door: like the forty foot sculpted aluminum wind harps that play themselves in the wind, or the massive stained glass windows at Occidental College in Pasadena, or the mosaics at Beth Alpha in the Valley of Jezreel, Israel, or the 168 foot high sculpture tower in Cote Ivoire, Africa. The exhibition is entitled "From Outer Space -- Return To Earth," and although the works, primarily paintings, are considerably smaller in stature, they represent the life work of an artist who's life at 81 is still unfolding. He was given the name "wunderkind," when as a child of four, he began drawing life-sized images of horses on the sidewalks of his home town of Hanover, Germany. His waking childhood visions of outer space manifested in a 1952 painting entitled "Ice Lake on the Moon." Forty-five years later, the existence of ice lakes on the moon was first discovered by NASA. Hailed as a "prophet" and "visionary" he is best known for his simplicity of line and form, believing that in art, less is more. He has been compared to the great Expressionists and Surrealists Picasso and Julio Gonzalez, and believes in the "minimum amount of composition to get across the maximum amount of comm unication." But, unlike Picasso, who was all too willing to relinquish his innocence, Perli's childlike naivete has remained. He strives, he says, "to create art works that leave something out to entice the imagination of the viewer." This, Pelzig promises, "allows the viewer to complete the work in his own mind and contribute to the art as the art contributes to uplifting the awareness of the viewer." James Michener a long time fan and friend of Pelzig's called Perli "a true artist," and one who creates "real works of beauty." The exhibition will be hosted by Michael Calvert of California Federal Bank and Martin St. John, of the Beverly Hills Marketing firm, Visual Media Marketing. Calvert says he is "indeed honored to have the work of such a renowned and accomplished artist on display." Or click here for a look at some of the work of Perli Pelzig *** Perli Pelzig, Israeli, b. 1917, Poland, active in Israel and the United States Perli Pelzig was born in Rymanow, Poland and grew up in Hannover, Germany. In 1931, he was accepted to the Kestnergesellschaft artists society in Hannover. In 1938, he was expelled to the border town of Zvonshin, Poland, where he remained with his parents for six months. In 1939, he immigrated to Palestine on a illegal immigrants ship. In Palestine, Pelzig joined the core group of Kibbutz Galil-Yam, which was living in the Borochov neighborhood of Givatayim. In 1948, he helped to restore the mosaic floor of Beit Alpha synagogue for the Israel Antiquities Authority. In the 1950s, he was one of the founders of the Oranim Art Teachers College. Some of his projects were architectural art installations. He created a wall mosaic for the Zion Hotel in Haifa (1952), a wall mural at the Pe'er Theater in Haifa (1953), wall murals for the Histadrut and Moshav Ha'ovdim pavilions of the "Making the Desert Bloom" exhibition (1953), a wooden relief for the Dan Hotel (1955) and more. In 1956-1969, he resided in the United States, where he worked on many architectural projects. Prizes: American Association of Architects, twice; 1971 Jerusalem Prize for Sculpture. *** The Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, "going out") is the founding, or etiological, myth of Israel; its message is that the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.[1][Notes 1] It tells of the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt following the death of Joseph, their departure under the leadership of Moses, the revelations at Sinai (including the Ten Commandments), and their wanderings in the wilderness up to the borders of Canaan.[2] The exodus story is told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, and their overall intent was to demonstrate God's actions in history, to recall Israel's bondage and salvation, and to demonstrate the fulfillment of Israel's covenant. [3] The historicity of the exodus continues to attract popular attention, but most histories of ancient Israel no longer consider information about it recoverable or even relevant to the story of Israel's emergence.[4] The classic period writers, such the 1st-century CE historian Josephus Flavius debated the synchronism between the biblical account of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and two Exodus-like events that the Egyptian historian Manetho apparently mentions - specifically the first exodus mentioned by Manetho, when some 480,000 Hyksos "shepherd kings" (also referred to as just 'shepherds', as 'kings' and as 'captive shepherds' in his discussion of Manetho) left Egypt for Jerusalem.[5] This "early exodus", dating in the 16th century BCE, is still supported by some historians, referring to significant overlaps of events associated with the Exodus, including the departure of Semitic Hyksos from Pharaonic Egypt in 1540 BCE, the catastrophic eruption of Santorini around 1550-1670 BCE and the destruction of the Wall of Jericho in 16th century BCE, though still not presenting a coherent picture, failing to provide a recognizeable sequence of events.[6] According to Myers, however, The archaeological evidence does not support the story told in the Book of Exodus[7] and most archaeologists have therefore abandoned the investigation of Moses and the Exodus as "a fruitless pursuit".[8] The opinion of the overwhelming majority of modern biblical scholars is that the exodus story was shaped into its final present form in the post-Exilic period,[9] although the traditions behind it are older and can be traced in the writings of the 8th century BCE prophets.[10] How far beyond that the tradition might stretch cannot be told: "Presumably an original Exodus story lies hidden somewhere inside all the later revisions and alterations, but centuries of transmission have long obscured its presence, and its substance, accuracy and date are now difficult to determine."[3] The Exodus has been central to Judaism: it served to orient Jews towards the celebration of God's actions in history, in contrast to polytheistic celebrations of the gods' actions in nature, and even today it is recounted daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated in the festival of Pesach. In secular history the exodus has served as inspiration and model for many groups, from early Protestant settlers fleeing persecution in Europe to 19th and 20th century African-Americans striving for freedom and civil rights.[11] Contents 1 Origins2 Cultural significance3 Historicity 3.1 Numbers and logistics3.2 Archaeology 3.2.1 In lower Egypt3.2.2 Mount Sinai3.2.3 Jericho 3.3 Anachronisms3.4 Exodus chronology3.5 Route3.6 Dating 4 Extra-biblical accounts 4.1 Egyptian texts4.2 Greek-period texts 5 See also6 Notes7 References 7.1 Citations7.2 Bibliography 8 External links Origins The opinion of the overwhelming majority of modern biblical scholars is that the Torah (the series of five books which consist of the Book of Genesis plus the books in which the Exodus story is told) was shaped in the post-exilic period.[9] There are currently two important hypotheses explaining the background to this: the first is Persian Imperial authorisation, the idea that the post-exilic community needed a legal basis on which to function within the Persian Imperial system; the second relates to the community of citizens organised around the Temple, with the Pentateuch providing the criteria for who would belong to it (the narratives and genealogies in Genesis) and establishing the power structures and relative positions of its various groups.[12] In either case, the Book of Exodus forms a "charter myth" for Israel: Israel was delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belongs to him through the covenant.[1] The final form of the Pentateuch was based on earlier traditions.[13] These have left traces in over 150 references throughout the Bible.[14] The earliest are in the prophets Amos (possibly) and Hosea (certainly), both active in 8th century BCE Israel; in contrast Proto-Isaiah and Micah, both active in Judah at much the same time, never do; it thus seems reasonable to conclude the Exodus tradition was important in the northern kingdom in the 8th century BCE, but not in Judah.[10] In a recent work, Stephen C. Russell traces the 8th century BCE prophetic tradition to three originally separate variants, in the northern Kingdom of Israel, in Transjordan, and in the southern Kingdom of Judah. Russell proposes different hypothetical historical backgrounds to each tradition: the tradition from Israel, which involves a journey from Egypt to the region of Bethel, he suggests is a memory of herders who could move to and from Egypt in times of crisis; for the Transjordanian tradition, which focuses on deliverance from Egypt without a journey, he suggests a memory of the withdrawal of Egyptian control at the end of the Late Bronze Age; and for Judah, whose tradition is preserved in the Song of the Sea, he suggests the celebration of a military victory over Egypt, although it is impossible to suggest what this victory may have been.[14] A Semitic slave. Ancient Egyptian figurine. Hecht Museum The presence of Semitic tribes in Egypt is historically correct, though there is no specific association of those Semitic tribes with the Israelites. Important Canaan populations first appeared in Egypt towards the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BCE, and either around that time or c. 1720 BCE, formed an independent realm in the Eastern Nile Delta.[15] The Canaanite rulers of the Delta, regrouped in the 14th Dynasty, coexisted with the Egyptian 13th Dynasty, based in Itjtawy. The power of the 13th and 14th Dynasties progressively waned, perhaps due to famine and plague,[15][16] and c. 1650 BCE both were invaded by the Hyksos, who formed their own dynasty, the 15th Dynasty. The collapse of the 13th Dynasty created a power vacuum in the south, which may have led to the rise of the 16th Dynasty, based in Thebes, and possibly of a local dynasty in Abydos.[15] Both were eventually conquered by the Hyksos, albeit for a short time in the case of Thebes. From then on, the 17th Dynasty took control of Thebes and reigned for some time in peaceful coexistence with the Hyksos kings, perhaps as their vassals. Eventually, Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and Ahmose waged war against the Hyksos and expelled Khamudi, their last king, from Egypt c. 1550 BCE.[15] Cultural significance Main article: Passover The exodus is remembered daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated each year at the feast of Passover.[17] The Hebrew name for this festival, Pesach, refers to God's instruction to the Israelites to prepare unleavened bread as they would be leaving Egypt in haste, and to mark their doors with the blood of slaughtered sheep so that the "Angel of Death" or "the destroyer" tasked with killing the first-born of Egypt would "pass over" them. (Despite the Exodus story, scholars believe that the Passover festival originated not in the biblical story but as a magic ritual to turn away demons from the household.)[18] Jewish tradition has preserved national and personal reminders of this pivotal narrative in daily life. Examples include the wearing of tefillin (phylacteries) on the arm and forehead, the wearing of tzitzit (knotted ritual fringes attached to the four corners of the prayer shawl), the eating of matzot (unleavened bread) during the Pesach, the fasting of the firstborn a day before Pesach, and the redemption of firstborn children and animals. Historicity The archaeological data does not accord with what could be expected from the Bible's exodus story: there is no specific evidence that Israel ever lived in Egypt, the Sinai shows almost no sign of any occupation at all for the entire second millennium, and even Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites are said to have spent 38 years, was uninhabited prior to the establishment of the Israelite monarchy.[19] Scholars generally agree that while the exodus narrative contains late 2nd millennium elements, it has not been demonstrated that these elements could not belong to any other period and are consistent with "knowledge that a 1st millennium BCE writer trying to set an old story in Egypt could have known."[20] Despite this, a few scholars, notably Kenneth Kitchen and James Hoffmeier, continue to discuss the historicity, or at least plausibility, of the story.[21] They advance a range of arguments to explain the lack of evidence: possibly the Egyptian records of the presence of the Israelites and their escape have been lost or suppressed; possibly (or probably) the fleeing Israelites left no archaeological trace in the desert; possibly the huge numbers reported in the story are mistranslated.[22] Professor Joshua Berman wrote: "We have to rely on monumental inscriptions, which, being mainly reports to the gods about royal achievements, are far from complete or reliable as historical records. They are more akin to modern-day résumés, and just as conspicuous for their failure to note setbacks of any kind."[23] Numbers and logistics According to Exodus 12:37–38, the Israelites numbered "about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children," plus many non-Israelites and livestock.[24] Numbers 1:46 gives a more precise total of 603,550 men aged 20 and up.[25] The 600,000, plus wives, children, the elderly, and the "mixed multitude" of non-Israelites would have numbered some 2 million people.[26] Marching ten abreast, and without accounting for livestock, they would have formed a line 150 miles long.[27] Against the 2 million implied participants in the exodus was an entire Egyptian population in 1250 BCE of around 3 to 3.5 million.[28][26] No outside evidence has been found that indicates Egypt ever suffered the demographic and economic catastrophe such a loss of population would represent, nor that the Sinai desert ever hosted (or could have hosted) these millions of people and their herds.[29] It is also difficult to reconcile the idea of 600,000 Israelite fighting men with the information that the Israelites were afraid of the Philistines and Egyptians.[30] Some have rationalised the numbers into smaller figures, for example reading the Hebrew as "600 families" rather than 600,000 men, but all such solutions have their own set of problems.[31] The most probable explanation is that 600,000 symbolises the total destruction of the generation of Israel which left Egypt, none of whom lived to see the Promised Land,[32] while the 603,550 is a gematria (a code in which numbers represent letters or words) for bnei yisra'el kol rosh, "the children of Israel, every individual".[33] Archaeology In lower Egypt Further information: Avaris A century of research by archaeologists and Egyptologists has found no specific evidence which can be directly related to the Exodus captivity and the escape and travels through the wilderness,[34] and most archaeologists have abandoned the archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus as "a fruitless pursuit".[8] A number of theories have been put forward to account for the origins of the Israelites, and despite differing details they agree on Israel's Canaanite origins.[35] The culture of the earliest Israelite settlements is Canaanite, their cult-objects are those of the Canaanite god El, the pottery remains in the local Canaanite tradition, and the alphabet used is early Canaanite, and almost the sole marker distinguishing the "Israelite" villages from Canaanite sites is an absence of pig bones, although whether even this is an ethnic marker or is due to other factors remains a matter of dispute.[36] Map of ancient Lower Egypt showing Avaris There are though notable excavations, performed over the past decade in Avaris - the capital of the Semitic Hyksos kingdom in Lower Egypt. Avaris contains much Semitic features and remains, though doesn't contain a specific link with Israelites. Avaris was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a in the northEastern region of the Nile Delta, at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes.[37] As the main course of the Nile migrated eastward, its position at the hub of Egypt's delta emporia made it a major administrative capital of the Hyksos and other traders.[38] It was occupied from about 1783 to 1550 BCE, or from the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt through the second intermediate until its destruction by Ahmose I, the first Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. The site at Tell el-Dab'a, covering an area of about 2 square kilometers, is in ruins today, but excavations have shown that, at one point, it was a well-developed center of trade with a busy harbour catering to over 300 ships during a trading season.[39] Mount Sinai Main article: Biblical Mount Sinai Most potential sites of the Mount Sinai do not contain any evidence of massive human cult or presence at an appropriate period of the 2nd millennium BCE, with the exception of Har Karkom (Jabal Idead). Half way between Kadesh Barnea and Petra is Har Karkom, which Emmanuel Anati excavated, and discovered to have been a major Paleolithic cult centre, with the surrounding plateau covered with shrines, altars, stone circles, stone pillars, and over 40,000 rock engravings; although the peak of religious activity at the site dates to 2350-2000 BCE, the exodus is dated 15 Nisan 2448 (Hebrew calendar; 1313 BCE),[40] and the mountain appears to have been abandoned between 1950-1000 BCE, Anati proposed that Jabal Idead was equatable with biblical Sinai.[41][42] Other scholars have criticised this identification, as, in addition to being almost 1000 years too early, it also appears to require the wholesale relocation of the Midianites, Amalekites, and other ancient peoples, from the locations where the majority of scholars currently place them.[43] Jericho Main articles: Battle of Jericho, Wall of Jericho and Tower of Jericho In 1868, Charles Warren identified Tell es-Sultan as the site of Jericho. In 1930–36, John Garstang conducted excavations there and discovered the remains of a network of collapsed walls which he dated to about 1400 BCE, approximate to the accepted biblical date of the conquest. John Garstang found these walls in a ruinous state.[44] The walls had mostly collapsed and were burnt extensively along all the visible sections.[44] In addition, the houses in the topmost layer were charred, their bricks turned many colors by the heat and their contents, like pottery and grain, blackened.[44] The explanation Garstang gives for this massive destruction of Jericho is an earthquake,[44] which is highly plausible as Jericho lies on a fault that runs along the west side of the Jordan Valley, and has seen many earthquakes throughout the centuries. Garstang cites another convincing piece of evidence for the earthquake scenario: the near identicality between a description of disaster in Joshua 3, 16, and two descriptions of earthquakes in later times (1267 CE and 1927 CE), when in each of those accounts the cliffs above the Jordan River fell into the river and dammed it.[44] Far from seeing an explanation based on natural phenomena as dispelling the possibility of divine aid, Garstang believes an earthquake was merely "the agent of God's will in helping the Israelites", fitting this into the story of Joshua.[44] After God had sent an earthquake to bring down the walls, the Israelites "went up into the city," burnt everything there, and the story proceeded just as the Bible states.[44] Evidence for a massive and intentional burning of the city was a deep layer (sometimes over three feet thick) of charred wood and reeds found between many of the walls and houses. It would appear these had been piled up and deliberately set ablaze, as the Israelites are reported to have done.[44] Kathleen Kenyon re-excavated the site over 1952–1958 and demonstrated that the destruction occurred c.1500 BCE during a well-attested Egyptian campaign of that period, and that Jericho had been deserted throughout the mid-late 13th century.[45] Kenyon's work was corroborated in 1995 by radiocarbon tests, which dated the destruction level to the late 17th or 16th centuries.[46] A small unwalled settlement was rebuilt in the 15th century, but the tell was unoccupied from the late 15th century until the 10th/9th centuries BCE.[47] According to Dever, in the face of the archaeological evidence, the biblical story of the fall of Jericho "cannot have been founded on genuine historical sources".[48] Most scholars agree that the book of Joshua holds little of historical value.[49] It was written by authors far removed from the times it depicts,[50] and was intended to illustrate a theological scheme in which Israel and her leaders are judged by their obedience to the teachings and laws (the covenant) set down in the book of Deuteronomy, rather than as history in the modern sense.[51] The story of Jericho, and the conquest generally, probably represents the nationalist propaganda of the kings of Judah and their claims to the territory of the Kingdom of Israel after 722 BCE;[52] these chapters were later incorporated into an early form of Joshua written late in the reign of king Josiah (reigned 640–609 BCE), and the book was revised and completed after the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in 586, and possibly after the return from the Babylonian exile in 538.[53] The combination of archaeological evidence and analysis of the composition history and theological purposes of the Book of Joshua lies behind the judgement of archaeologist William G. Dever that the battle of Jericho "seems invented out of whole cloth."[48] Anachronisms Despite the Bible's internal dating of the Exodus to the 2nd millennium BCE, details point to a 1st millennium date for the composition of the Book of Exodus: Ezion-Geber, (one of the Stations of the Exodus), for example, dates to a period between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE with possible further occupation into the 4th century BCE,[54] and those place-names on the Exodus route which have been identified – Goshen, Pithom, Succoth, Ramesses and Kadesh Barnea – point to the geography of the 1st millennium rather than the 2nd.[55] Similarly, Pharaoh's fear that the Israelites might ally themselves with foreign invaders seems unlikely in the context of the late 2nd millennium, when Canaan was part of an Egyptian empire and Egypt faced no enemies in that direction, but does make sense in a 1st millennium context, when Egypt was considerably weaker and faced invasion first from the Persians and later from Seleucid Syria.[56] The mention of the dromedary in Exodus 9:3 also suggests a later date of composition – the widespread domestication of the camel as a herd animal was thought not to have taken place before the late 2nd millennium, after the Israelites had already emerged in Canaan,[57] and they did not become widespread in Egypt until c.200–100 BCE.[58] Exodus chronology The chronology of the Exodus story likewise underlines its essentially religious rather than historical nature. The number seven, for example, was sacred to God in Judaism, and so the Israelites arrive at Sinai, where they will meet God, at the beginning of the seventh week after their departure from Egypt,[59] while the erection of the Tabernacle, God's dwelling-place among his people, occurs in the year 2666 after God creates the world, two-thirds of the way through a four thousand year era which culminates in or around the re-dedication of the Second Temple in 164 BCE.[60][61][Notes 2] Route Main article: Stations list Possible Exodus routes. The traditional Exodus route is in black; other possible routes are in blue and green. The Torah lists the places where the Israelites rested. A few of the names at the start of the itinerary, including Ra'amses, Pithom and Succoth, are reasonably well identified with archaeological sites on the Eastern edge of the Nile delta,[55] as is Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites spend 38 years after turning back from Canaan, but other than that very little is certain. The crossing of the Red Sea has been variously placed at the Pelusic branch of the Nile, anywhere along the network of Bitter Lakes and smaller canals that formed a barrier toward eastward escape, the Gulf of Suez (SSE of Succoth) and the Gulf of Aqaba (S of Ezion-Geber), or even on a lagoon on the Mediterranean coast. The biblical Mt. Sinai is identified in Christian tradition with Jebel Musa in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, but this association dates only from the 3rd century CE and no evidence of the Exodus has been found there.[62] Dating Main article: Pharaoh of the Exodus Attempts to date the Exodus to a specific century have been inconclusive.[63] There are generally two approaches to the dating - one the Early Exodus Dating - putting the event into 15th or 16th centuries BCE or a Late Exodus Dating, timing the event to the 13th or 14th century BCE. 1 Kings 6:1 says that the Exodus occurred 480 years before the construction of Solomon's Temple; this would imply an Exodus c.1446 BCE, during Egypt's 18th Dynasty.[64] However, it is widely recognized that the number in 1 Kings might be symbolic,[65] representing twelve generations of forty years each.[66] (The number 480 is not only symbolic – the twelve generations – but schematic: Solomon's temple is founded 480 years after the Exodus and 480 years before the foundation of the Second Temple).[67] There are also major archaeological obstacles in dating the Exodus to the Eighteenth Dynasty: Canaan at the time was a part of the Egyptian empire, so that the Israelites would in effect be escaping from Egypt to Egypt, and its cities were unwalled and do not show destruction layers consistent with the Bible's account of the occupation of the land (e.g., Jericho was "small and poor, almost insignificant, and unfortified (and) [t]here was also no sign of a destruction". (Finkelstein and Silberman, 2002).[68] Another opinion on Early Exodus Dating puts it between 1525 to 1540 BCE, during the Pharaoh Ahmose reign, supporting the earliest known interpretation of Exodus story by Josephus and usually connecting it with the Expulsion of the Hyksos. Geologist Barbara J. Sivertsen also seeks to establish a link between the eruption of Santorini (between 1540 to 1642 BCE) and the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt in the Bible.[69] William F. Albright, the leading biblical archaeologist of the mid-20th century, proposed an alternative 13th century date of around 1250–1200 BCE for the Exodus event and the entry into Canaan described in the Book of Joshua.[70] The Merneptah Stele indicated that a people called "Israel" were already known in Canaan by the reign of Merneptah (1213–1203 BCE), so a date later than this is generally considered implausible. Albright's argument was based on many strands of evidence, including archaeologically attested destruction at Beitel (Bethel) and some other cities at around that period and the occurrence of distinctive house-types and round-collared jars which, in his opinion, were "Israelite".[70] Albright's theory enjoyed popularity at the time, but has now been generally abandoned in scholarship:[70] the so-called "Israelite" house-type, the collar-rimmed jars, and other items which Albright thought distinctive and new have now been recognised as continuations of indigenous Canaanite types,[71] and while some "Joshua" cities, including Hazor, Lachish, Megiddo and others, have destruction and transition layers around 1250–1145 BCE, others, including Jericho, have none or were uninhabited during this period.[72][73] Details in the story hint that a complex and multilayered editing process has been at work: the Exodus cities of Pithom and Rameses, for example, were not inhabited during most of the New Kingdom period, and the forty years of wilderness wanderings are also full of inconsistencies and anachronisms.[49] It is therefore best to treat the Exodus story not as the record of a single historical event but as a "powerful collective memory of the Egyptian occupation of Canaan and the enslavement of its population" during the 13th and 12th centuries (Ann Killebrew, 2005).[49] Extra-biblical accounts Egyptian texts The "Admonitions of Ipuwer" dates from the end of the 13th Dynasty (1770-1650 BCE), or, more probably, from the Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BCE).[74] Written in the form of a dialogue between the sage Ipuwer and the creator, Ipuwer accuses both the creator-god Re and the king of having neglected their roles, and as a result the social order is overturned and various natural disasters fill the land.[74] The afflictions besetting Egypt described in this text are "remarkably similar" to the ten plagues of Egypt, including such details as plague, darkness, and the sound of wailing and moaning filling the land, "the river" (the Nile) turning to blood, and the destruction of cattle and animals,[75] but scholars have identified this and similar works (Ipuwer being the most ambitious) as examples of a common Egyptian literary genre, with little or no basis in historical events.[76] Greek-period texts The Greek author Hecataeus of Abdera (c.320 BCE) wrote a history of Egypt, in which he told how the Egyptians blamed a plague on foreigners and expelled them from the country, whereupon Moses, their leader, took them to Canaan.[77] The most famous Greek-era mention of an exodus-like event is by the Egyptian historian Manetho (3rd century BCE), known from two quotations by the 1st century CE Jewish historian Josephus. In the first, Manetho describes the Hyksos, their lowly origins in Asia, their dominion over and expulsion from Egypt, and their subsequent foundation of the city of Jerusalem and its temple. Josephus (not Manetho) identifies the Hyksos with the Israelites.[78] In the second story Manetho tells how 80,000 lepers and other "impure people", led by a priest named Osarseph, join forces with the former Hyksos, now living in Jerusalem, to take over Egypt. They wreak havoc until eventually the pharaoh and his son chase them out to the borders of Syria, where Osarseph gives the lepers a law-code and changes his name to Moses, although the identification of Osarseph with Moses in the second account may be a later addition.[79][80] *****The term "Torah" (Hebrew: תּוֹרָה, "learning" or "instruction," sometimes translated as "Law"[1]), refers either to the Five Books of Moses (or Pentateuch) or to the entirety of Judaism's founding legal and ethical religious texts.[2][3] When used with an indefinite article, "a Torah" usually refers to a "Sefer Torah" (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, "book of Torah") or Torah scroll, written on parchment in a formal, traditional manner by a specially trained scribe under very strict requirements. The Torah is the most holy of the sacred writings in Judaism.[4] It is the first of three sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), the founding religious document of Judaism,[5] and is divided into five books, whose names in English are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in reference to their themes (Their Hebrew names, Bereshit, בראשית, Shemot שמות, Vayikra ויקרא, Bemidbar במדבר, and Devarim דברים, are derived from the wording of their initial verses). The Torah contains a variety of literary genres, including allegories, historical narrative, poetry, genealogy, and the exposition of various types of law. According to rabbinic tradition, the Torah contains the 613 mitzvos (מצוות, "commandments"), which are divided into 365 negative restrictions and 248 positive commands.[6] In rabbinic literature, the word "Torah" denotes both the written text, "Torah Shebichtav" (תורה שבכתב, "Torah that is written"), as well as an oral tradition, "Torah Shebe'al Peh" (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is oral"). The oral portion consists of the "traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation," now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.[7] Jewish religious tradition ascribes authorship of the Torah to Moses through a process of divine inspiration. This view of Mosaic authorship is first found explicitly expressed in the Talmud, dating from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, and is based on textual analysis of passages in the Torah and the subsequent books of the Hebrew Bible. The Zohar, the most significant text in Jewish mysticism, states that the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and that it was used as the blueprint for Creation.[8] According to dating of the text by Orthodox rabbis the revelation of the Torah to Moses occurred in 1380 BCE at Mount Sinai.[citation needed] Contemporary secular biblical scholars date the completion of the Torah, as well as the prophets and the historical books, no earlier than the Persian period (539 to 334 BCE).[9] Scholarly discussion for much of the 20th century was principally couched in terms of the documentary hypothesis, according to which the Torah is a synthesis of documents from a small number of originally independent sources.[10]Outside of its central significance in Judaism, the Torah is accepted by Christianity as part of the Bible, comprising the first five books of the Old Testament.[11] The various denominations of Jews and Christians hold a diverse spectrum of views regarding the exactitude of scripture. The Torah has also been accepted to varying degrees by the Samaritans and others as the authentic revealed message of God to the Israelites and as a factual history of the early Israelites, in both cases as conveyed by Moses. In Islam, the Torah (along with the Christian Gospels) or Tawrat is seen as an authentic revelation from God corrupted with the additions and alterations of men.[12] The faiths revering the Pentateuch consider many of their central tenets to be illustrated in the narratives of the Torah.Meaning and names The word "Torah" in Hebrew "is derived from the root ירה which in the hifil conjugation means "to teach" (cf. Lev. 10:11). The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching," "doctrine," or "instruction"; the commonly accepted "law" gives a wrong impression."[13] Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, theory, guidance,[14] or system.[15] The term "Torah" is therefore also used in the general sense to include both Judaism's written law and oral law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, and the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law"[16] may be an obstacle to "understanding the ideal that is summed up in the term talmud torah (תלמוד תורה, "study of Torah,"), characterized in Jewish tradition as excelling all things."[17] Within the Hebrew Bible, "The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses." This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua (8:31–32; 23:6) and Kings (I Kings 2:3; II Kings 14:6; 23:25), but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works (Mal. 3:22; Dan. 9:11, 13; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Neh. 8:1; II Chron. 23:18; 30:16) was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" (Ezra 6:18; Neh. 13:1; II Chron. 35:12; 25:4; cf. II Kings 14:6) and "The Book of the Torah" (Neh. 8:3) which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God" (Neh. 8:8, 18; 10:29–30; cf. 9:3)."[18] In Judaism, the Torah in the specific sense is more formally called "Chamisha Chumshei Torah" (חמישה חומשי תורה, the "five fifths of the Torah,") or informally, "Chumash" (חומש, a derivation of "five") because of its division into five books.[19] These terms can be used both to refer figuratively to the Torah as well as to the physical text, with the latter use usually restricted to printed versions (versus the handwritten Seifer Torah.) The term "Pentateuch" (Πεντάτευχος, literally "five cases"[20]) is a Greek word used to refer to the "Five Books of Moses."[21] The first known use of this term dates to circa 150-175 CE, and it is used by Origen, Athanasius, and Tertullian, among others.[22] The Hebrew term "Seifer Torah" (ספר תורה, "book of Torah") refers to the Five Books of Moses written on a scroll of parchment in a formal, traditional manner by a specially trained Torah scribe under very strict requirements. Islam refers to the Torah as "Tawrat", an Arabic word for the revelations given to the Prophet Moses (Musa in Arabic). Authorship Traditional attribution Main article: Mosaic authorship "Mosaic authorship" is the ascription to Moses of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch. This is expressed in the Talmud, a collection of Jewish traditions and exegesis dating from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, and was presumably based on the several verses in the Torah describing Moses writing "torah" (instruction) from God.[citation needed] According to the Encyclopedia Judaica, "The traditional doctrine of Mosaic authorship of the entire Torah has its source in Deuteronomy 31:9–12, 24, more than in any other passage...The Torah itself contains no explicit statement ascribing its authorship to Moses, while Mosaic attribution is restricted to legal and ritual prescription and is hardly to be found in connection with the narrative material."[18] However, according to Catholic Encyclopedia, the attribution of the Torah to Moses dates as back to the Bible itself, noting the fact that several books of the Bible, reference the Torah as the Book of Moses, Law of Moses, etc,[23] and can also be found in the New Testament.[23] Deuteronomy 31:9 and Deuteronomy 31:24-26 describe how Moses writes "torah" (instruction) on a scroll and lays it beside the ark of the Covenant.[24] The attribution of the Torah to Moses is also expressed by the early Roman historian Josephus Flavius. Statements implying belief in Mosaic authorship of the Torah are contained in Joshua,[25] Kings,[26] Chronicles,[27] Ezra[28] and Nehemiah.[29] The rabbis of the Talmud (c. 200-500 CE) discussed exactly how the Torah was transmitted to Moses. In the Babylonian Talmud Gittin 60a it is written "Said R' Yochanan, the Torah was given in a series of small scrolls," implying that the Torah was written gradually and compiled from a variety of documents over time. Another opinion there that states that the entire Torah was given at one time. Menachem Mendel Kasher points to certain traditions of the Oral Torah that showed Moses quoting Genesis prior to the epiphany at Sinai. Based on a number of Bible verses and rabbinic statements, he suggests that Moses had certain documents authored by the Patriarchs that he made use of when redacting that book.[30] According to Moses Maimonides, the 12th Century rabbi and philosopher, Moses was the Torah's author, receiving it from God either as divine inspiration or as direct dictation in the Hebrew year 2449 AM (1313 BCE).[31][32] Later rabbis (and the Talmudic rabbis as well - see tractate Bava Basra 15a) and Christian scholars noticed some difficulties with the idea of Mosaic authorship of the entire Torah, notably the fact that the book of Deuteronomy describes Moses' death; later versions of the tradition therefore held that some portions of the Torah were added by others - the death of Moses in particular was ascribed to Joshua. The Talmud explains this by saying that Moses wrote it tearfully, in anticipation of his death; another tradition is that Joshua added these words after Moses died (the next book is the Book of Joshua which, according to Jewish tradition, was written by Joshua himself), and that the final verses of the book of Deuteronomy read like an epitaph to Moses. Mosaic authorship was accepted with very little discussion by both Jews and Christians until the 17th century, when the rise of secular scholarship and the associated willingness to subject even the Bible to the test of reason led to its rejection by mainstream biblical scholars. The majority of modern scholars believe that the Torah is the product of many hands, stretching over many centuries, reaching its final form only around the 6th and 5th centuries BCE. Academic analysis Main article: Documentary hypothesisMany contemporary secular biblical scholars date the completion of the Torah, as well as the prophets and the historical books, no earlier than the Persian period (539 to 334 BCE).[33] Scholarly discussion for much of the 20th century was principally couched in terms of the documentary hypothesis, according to which the Torah is a synthesis of documents from a small number of originally independent sources.[10] According to the most influential version of the hypothesis, as formulated by Julius Wellhausen (1844 - 1918), the Pentateuch is composed of four separate and identifiable texts, dating roughly from the period of Solomon up until exilic priests and scribes. These various texts were brought together as one document (the Five Books of Moses of the Torah) by scribes after the exile.The Jahwist (or J) - written c 950 BCE.[10] The southern kingdom's (i.e. Judah) interpretation. It is named according to the prolific use of the name "Yahweh" (or Jaweh, in German, the divine name or Tetragrammaton) in its text.The Elohist (or E) - written c 850 BCE.[10] The northern kingdom's (i.e. Israel) interpretation. As above, it is named because of its preferred use of "Elohim" (Generic name any heathen god or deity in Hebrew).The Deuteronomist (or D) - written c 650-621 BCE.[10] Dating specifically from the time of King Josiah of Judah and responsible for the book of Deuteronomy as well as Joshua and most of the subsequent books up to 2 Kings.The Priestly source (or P) - written during or after the exile, c 550-400 BCE.[10] So named because of its focus on Levitical laws.The documentary hypothesis has been increasingly challenged since the 1970s, and alternative views now see the Torah as having been compiled from a multitude of small fragments rather than a handful of large coherent source texts,[34] or as having gradually accreted over many centuries and through many hands.[35] The shorthand Yahwist, Priestly and Deuteronomistic is still used nevertheless to characterise identifiable and differentiable content and style.The 19th century dating of the final form of Genesis and the Pentateuch to c. 500-450 BCE continues to be widely accepted irrespective of the model adopted,[36] although a minority of scholars known as biblical minimalists argue for a date largely or entirely within the last two centuries BCE.Structure The Hebrew names of the five books of the Torah are taken from initial words of the first verse of each book. For example, the Hebrew name of the first book, Bereshit, is the first word of Genesis 1:1: Bereshit (בראשית, literally "In the beginning") Shemot (שמות, literally "Names" Vayikra (ויקרא, literally "He called") Bamidbar (במדבר, literally "In the wilderness") Devarim (דברים, literally "Things" or "Words") The Anglicized names are derived from the Greek and reflect the essential theme of each book: Genesis: "creation," Exodus: "departure" Leviticus: refers to the Levites and the regulations that apply to their presence and service in the Temple, which form the bulk of the third book. Numbers (Arithmoi): contains a record of the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai and later on the plain of Moab. Deuteronomy: "second law," refers to the fifth book's recapitulation of the commandments reviewed by Moses before his death. According to the classical Jewish view, the stories in the Torah are not always in chronological order. Sometimes they are ordered by concept according to the rule: "There is not 'earlier' and 'later' in the Torah" (אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה, Ein mukdam u'meuchar baTorah).[37] This position is accepted by Orthodox Judaism. Non-Orthodox Jews generally understand the same texts as signs that the current text of the Torah was redacted from earlier sources (see documentary hypothesis.) Content Bereshit (Genesis) begins with the story of creation (Genesis 1-3) and Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, as well the account of their descendants. Following these are the accounts of Noah and the great flood (Genesis 3-9), and his descendants. The Tower of Babel and the story of (Abraham)'s covenant with God (Genesis 10-11) are followed by the story of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the life of Joseph (Genesis 12-50). God gives to the Patriarchs a promise of the land of Canaan, but at the end of Genesis the sons of Jacob end up leaving Canaan for Egypt because of a famine. Shemot (Exodus) is the story of Moses, who leads Israelites out of Pharaoh's Egypt (Exodus 1-18) with a promise to take them to the promised land. On the way, they camp at Mount Sinai/Horeb where Moses receives the Torah, including the Ten Commandments, from God, and mediates His laws and Covenant (Exodus 19-24) the people of Israel. Exodus also deals with the violation of the commandment against idolatry when Aaron took part in the construction of the Golden Calf (Exodus 32-34). Exodus concludes with the instructions on building the Tabernacle (Exodus 25-31; 35-40). Vayikra (Leviticus) begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernacle, which they had just built (Leviticus 1-10). This is followed by rules of clean and unclean (Leviticus 11-15), which includes the laws of slaughter and animals permissible to eat (see also: Kashrut), the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), and various moral and ritual laws sometimes called the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-26). Bamidbar (Numbers) takes two censuses where the number of Israelites are counted (Numbers 1-3, 26), and has many laws mixed among the narratives. The narratives tell how Israel consolidated itself as a community at Sinai (Numbers 1-9), set out from Sinai to move towards Canaan and spied out the land (Numbers 10-13). Because of unbelief at various points, but especially at Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 14), the Israelites were condemned to wander for forty years in the desert in the vicinity of Kadesh instead of immediately entering the land of promise. Even Moses sins and is told he would not live to enter the land (Numbers 20). At the end of Numbers (Numbers 26-35) Israel moves from the area of Kadesh towards the promised land. They leave the Sinai desert and go around Edom and through Moab where Balak and Balaam oppose them (Numbers 22-24; 31:8, 15-16). They defeat two Transjordan kings, Og and Sihon (Numbers 21), and so come to occupy some territory outside of Canaan. At the end of the book they are on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho ready to enter the Promised Land. Devarim (Deuteronomy) consists primarily of a series of speeches by Moses on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho exhorting Israel to obey God and further instruction on His Laws. At the end of the book (Deuteronomy 34), Moses is allowed to see the promised land from a mountain, but it is not known what happened to Moses on the mountain. He was never seen again. Knowing that he is nearing the end of his life, Moses appoints Joshua his successor, bequeathing to him the mantle of leadership. Soon afterwards Israel begins the conquest of Canaan. Torah and Judaism.The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος, exodos, meaning "going out"; Hebrew: שמות‎, Sh'mot, "Names"), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament).[1] The book tells how the Israelites leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, the God who has chosen Israel as his people. Led by their prophet Moses they journey through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land") in return for their faithfulness. Israel enters into a covenant with Yahweh who gives them their laws and instructions for the Tabernacle, the means by which he will dwell with them and lead them to the land, and give them peace. Traditionally ascribed to Moses himself, modern scholarship sees the book as initially a product of the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period (5th century BCE).[2] Carol Meyers in her commentary on Exodus suggests that it is arguably the most important book in the Bible, as it presents the defining features of Israel's identity: memories of a past marked by hardship and escape, a binding covenant with God, who chooses Israel, and the establishment of the life of the community and the guidelines for sustaining it.[3] Contents 1 Structure2 Summary3 Composition 3.1 Authorship3.2 Genre and sources 4 Themes 4.1 Salvation4.2 Theophany4.3 Covenant4.4 Election of Israel 5 Contents according to Judaism's weekly Torah portions6 See also7 References 7.1 Citations7.2 Bibliography 8 Translations of Exodus9 External links Structure There is no agreement among scholars on the structure of Exodus. One strong possibility is that it is a diptych (i.e., divided into two parts), with the division between parts 1 and 2 at the crossing of the Red Sea or at the beginning of the theophany (appearance of God) in chapter 19.[4] On this plan, the first part tells of God's rescue of his people from Egypt and their journey under his care to Sinai (chapters 1–19) and the second tells of the covenant between them (chapters 20–40).[5] Summary Egypt's Pharaoh, fearful of the Israelites' numbers, orders that all newborn boys be thrown into the Nile. A Levite woman saves her baby by setting him adrift on the river Nile in an ark of bulrushes. Pharaoh's daughter finds the child, names him Moses, and brings him up as her own. But Moses is aware of his origins, and one day, when grown, he kills an Egyptian overseer who is beating a Hebrew slave and has to flee into Midian. There he marries the daughter of Jethro a priest of Midian, and encounters God in a burning bush. Moses asks God for his name: God replies: "I AM that I AM." God tells Moses to return to Egypt and lead the Hebrews into Canaan, the land promised to Abraham. Moses returns to Egypt and fails to convince the Pharaoh to release the Israelites. God smites the Egyptians with 10 terrible plagues (Plagues of Egypt) including a river of blood, many frogs, and the death of first-born sons. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage after a final chase scene ensues when the Pharaoh reneges on his coerced consent (Crossing the Red Sea). The desert proves arduous, and the Israelites complain and long for Egypt, but God provides manna and miraculous water for them. The Israelites arrive at the mountain of God, where Moses' father-in-law Jethro visits Moses; at his suggestion Moses appoints judges over Israel. God asks whether they will agree to be his people. They accept. The people gather at the foot of the mountain, and with thunder and lightning, fire and clouds of smoke, and the sound of trumpets, and the trembling of the mountain, God appears on the peak, and the people see the cloud and hear the voice [or possibly "sound"] of God. Moses and Aaron are told to ascend the mountain. God pronounces the Ten Commandments (the Ethical Decalogue) in the hearing of all Israel. Moses goes up the mountain into the presence of God, who pronounces the Covenant Code (a detailed code of ritual and civil law), and promises Canaan to them if they obey. Moses comes down the mountain and writes down God's words and the people agree to keep them. God calls Moses up the mountain with Aaron and the elders of Israel, and they feast in the presence of God. God calls Moses up the mountain to receive a set of stone tablets containing the law, and he and Joshua go up, leaving Aaron below. God gives Moses instructions for the construction of the tabernacle so that God could dwell permanently among his chosen people, as well as instructions for the priestly vestments, the altar and its appurtenances, the procedure to be used to ordain the priests, and the daily sacrifices to be offered. Aaron is appointed as the first hereditary high priest. God gives Moses the two tablets of stone containing the words of the ten commandments, written with the "finger of God".[6] While Moses is with God, Aaron makes a golden calf, which the people worship. God informs Moses of their apostasy and threatens to kill them all, but relents when Moses pleads for them. Moses comes down from the mountain, smashes the stone tablets in anger, and commands the Levites to massacre the unfaithful Israelites. God commands Moses to make two new tablets on which He will personally write the words that were on the first tablets. Moses ascends the mountain, God dictates the Ten Commandments (the Ritual Decalogue), and Moses writes them on the tablets. Moses descends from the mountain, and his face is transformed, so that from that time onwards he has to hide his face with a veil. Moses assembles the Hebrews and repeats to them the commandments he has received from God, which are to keep the Sabbath and to construct the Tabernacle. "And all the construction of the Tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting was finished, and the children of Israel did according to everything that God had commanded Moses", and from that time God dwelt in the Tabernacle and ordered the travels of the Hebrews. Composition Moses with the Ten Commandments, by Rembrandt (1659) Authorship Jewish and Christian tradition viewed Moses as the author of Exodus and the entire Pentateuch, but by the end of the 19th century the increasing awareness of the discrepancies, inconsistencies, repetitions and other features of the Pentateuch had led scholars to abandon this idea.[7] In approximate round dates, the process which produced Exodus and the Pentateuch probably began around 600 BCE when existing oral and written traditions were brought together to form books recognisable as those we know, reaching their final form as unchangeable sacred texts around 400 BCE.[8] Genre and sources The story of the exodus is the founding myth of Israel, telling how the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.[9] The Book of Exodus is not historical narrative in any modern sense:[10] modern history writing requires the critical evaluation of sources, and does not accept God as a cause of events,[11] but in Exodus, everything is presented as the work of God, who appears frequently in person, and the historical setting is only very hazily sketched.[12] The purpose of the book is not to record what really happened, but to reflect the historical experience of the exile community in Babylon and later Jerusalem, facing foreign captivity and the need to come to terms with their understanding of God.[13] Although mythical elements are not so prominent in Exodus as in Genesis, some writers claim ancient legends have an influence on the book's content: for example, the story of the infant Moses's salvation from the Nile may have some basis in an earlier legend of king Sargon, while the story of the parting of the Red Sea trades on Mesopotamian creation mythology. Similarly, the Covenant Code (the law code in Exodus 20:22–23:33) has some similarities in both content and structure with the Laws of Hammurabi. These influences serve to reinforce the conclusion that the Book of Exodus originated in the exiled Jewish community of 6th-century Babylon, but not all the sources are Mesopotamian: the story of Moses's flight to Midian following the murder of the Egyptian overseer may draw on the Egyptian Story of Sinuhe.[14] Themes "Departure of the Israelites", by David Roberts, 1829 Salvation Biblical scholars describe the Bible's theologically-motivated history writing as "salvation history", meaning a history of God's saving actions that give identity to Israel – the promise of offspring and land to the ancestors, the exodus from Egypt ( in which God saves Israel from slavery), the wilderness wandering, the revelation at Sinai, and the hope for the future life in the promised land.[11] Theophany A theophany is a manifestation (appearance) of a god – in the Bible, an appearance of the God of Israel, accompanied by storms – the earth trembles, the mountains quake, the heavens pour rain, thunder peals and lightning flashes.[15] The theophany in Exodus begins "the third day" from their arrival at Sinai in chapter 19: Yahweh and the people meet at the mountain, God appears in the storm and converses with Moses, giving him the Ten Commandments while the people listen. The theophany is therefore a public experience of divine law.[16] The second half of Exodus marks the point at which, and describes the process through which, God's theophany becomes a permanent presence for Israel via the Tabernacle. That so much of the book (chapters 25–31, 35–40) is spent describing the plans of the Tabernacle demonstrates the importance it played in the perception of Second Temple Judaism at the time of the text's redaction by the Priestly writers: the Tabernacle is the place where God is physically present, where, through the priesthood, Israel could be in direct, literal communion with him.[17] Covenant The heart of Exodus is the Sinaitic covenant.[18] A covenant is a legal document binding two parties to take on certain obligations towards each other.[19] There are several covenants in the Bible, and in each case they exhibit at least some of the elements found in real-life treaties of the ancient Middle East: a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, deposition and reading, list of witnesses, blessings and curses, and ratification by animal sacrifice.[20] Biblical covenants, in contrast to Eastern covenants in general, are between a god, Yahweh, and a people, Israel, instead of between a strong ruler and a weaker vassal.[21] Election of Israel Israel is elected for salvation because the "sons of Israel" are "the firstborn son" of the God of Israel, descended through Shem and Abraham to the chosen line of Jacob whose name is changed to Israel. The goal of the divine plan as revealed in Exodus is a return to humanity's state in Eden, so that God can dwell with the Israelites as he had with Adam and Eve through the Ark and Tabernacle, which together form a model of the universe; in later Abrahamic religions this came to be interpreted as Israel being the guardian of God's plan for humanity, to bring "God's creation blessing to mankind" begun in Adam.[22] Contents according to Judaism's weekly Torah portions "Crossing of the Red Sea", Nicholas Poussin Main article: Weekly Torah portion Shemot, on Exodus 1–5: Affliction in Egypt, Moses is found and called, PharaohVa'eira, on Exodus 6–9: Plagues 1 to 7 of EgyptBo, on Exodus 10–13: Last plagues of Egypt, first PassoverBeshalach, on Exodus 13–17: Parting the Sea, water, manna, AmalekYitro, on Exodus 18–20: Jethro’s advice, The Ten CommandmentsMishpatim, on Exodus 21–24: The Covenant CodeTerumah, on Exodus 25–27: God's instructions on the Tabernacle and furnishingsTetzaveh, on Exodus 27–30: God's instructions on the first priestsKi Tissa, on Exodus 30–34: Census, anointing oil, golden calf, stone tablets, Moses radiantVayakhel, on Exodus 35–38: Israelites collect gifts, make the Tabernacle and furnishingsPekudei, on Exodus 38–40: The Tabernacle is set up and filled See also The ExodusKetef HinnomMosesSong of the seaTabernacleFilm adaptations of the Book of ExodusHistory of the Jews in Ancient Egypt 4187

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