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Charles Lyell*1830*principles Of Geology*1st Edition*first*evolution*darwin*nr* For Sale

Charles Lyell*1830*principles Of Geology*1st Edition*first*evolution*darwin*nr*

Please check out myother items: Natural History, Darwin, Geology _____________


PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY

AN ATTEMPT TO EXPLAIN THE FORMER CHANGES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

BY REFERENCE TO CAUSES NOW IN OPERATION

BY

SIR CHARLES LYELL, F.R.S

[1st EDITION SET]

LONDON, JOHN MURRAY

1830 - 1833

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DESCRIPTION: 3 volumes, 8vo (22 cm x 14 cm), pp VOL I (1830) - xv [1] 511;VOL II (1832) - xii 330 [2];VOL III (1833) - xxxi [1] 398, 109, plus 4pp. publisher’s advertisements, 11 plates, including 3 engraved frontispieces (2 hand-colored), and 3 maps (2 folding, 2 hand-colored).Collated and complete.

CONDITION:VERY GOOD+. Recent leather binding is in excellent condition. No inks or previous ownership marks. Bindings all very tight indeed and appear to have been professionally re-sewn. All edges trimmed with marbling that looks fairly contemporary - mid 19th Century at the latest. Plain endpapers and original fly-leaves. Some foxing to the first title page and around the plates but otherwise a remarkably fresh set with no inks or even pencil marks that I can see. No tears or serious stains apparent. Note that the Priciples was initially intended for issue in just two volumes, hence the misleading line on the title page of Vol I. A very solid, complete, set of the scarce 1st edition (Only 1500 copies were printed. Also the staggered publication over 3 years and the fact the the 2nd Edition - in two volumes - was issued before Volume III of the 1st edition appeared means that many sets are now found containing 2nd edition volumes along with those of the 1st). Odd volumes (ususally very shabby) appear on from time to time, but this is the first time I've seen a complete set. There are over 50 images below, but let me know if you would like to see any others. These are being offered (with trepidation) at offers starting at 1p with AND FREE INTERNATIONAL INSURED POSTAGE.

I am also including an original carte de visite photograph of Lyell with this set - a poignant image of the scientist in old age. One can see it in the gallery photo, and there are more detailed images at the end of the photos below.

**********

Sir Charles Lyell, (1797 – 1875) was born in Scotland and wasthe foremost geologist of his day. He is best known as the author of this, his most important work - Principles of Geology - which popularisedtheconcepts of uniformitarianism, the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still in operation today. Lyell was a close and influential friend of Charles Darwin.

When first published Principles of Geology established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist and established Geology's place alongside other sciences. The central argument in Principles was that "the present is the key to the past": that geological remains from the distant past can, and should, be explained by reference to geological processes now in operation and thus directly observable.


Lyell's interpretation of geologic change as the steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long spans of time was also a central theme in the Principles, and a powerful influence on the young Charles Darwin, who was given VolumeIof the first edition (see photos below of a copy from that very same print-run)by Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, just before they set out on the voyage of the Beagle. On their first stop ashore at St Jago, Darwin found rock formations which -seen "through Lyell's eyes"- gave him a revolutionary insight into the geological history of the island, an insight he applied throughout his travels. While in South America, Darwin received Volume 2 (see photos), which rejected the idea of organic evolution, proposing "Centres of Creation" to explain diversity and territory of species. Darwin's ideas gradually moved beyond this, but in geology he was very much Lyell's disciple and sent home extensive evidence and theorising supporting Lyell's uniformitarianism, including Darwin's ideas about the formation of atolls.


Darwin's assertion of the importance of Lyell's work on his thinking is illustrated clearly in a letter to his friend, Leonard Horner, “… I cannot say how forcibly impressed I am with the infinite superiority of the Lyellian school of Geology over the Continental. I always feel as if my books came half out of Lyell’s brains and that I never acknowledge this sufficiently, nor do I know how I can, without saying so in so many words—for I have always thought that the great merit of the Principles, was that it altered the whole tone of one’s mind & therefore that when seeing a thing never seen by Lyell, one yet saw it partially through his eyes.”


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CONTENTS (From 11th Edition, which has a number of revisions and additions, so please use this as a guide)


THE FIRST VOLUME.
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. Geology — compared to History— its relation to other Physical Sciences-
not to be confounded with Cosmogony paob 1 CHAPTER II. HISTORY OF THE PROGRESS OF GEOLOGY. Oriental Cosmogony — Hymns of the Vedas — Institutes of Men& — Doctrine of
the snccessive Destruction and Renovation of the World— Origin of this Doc-
trine — Common to the Egyptians — adopted by the Greeks — Anaximander on
the Origin of Mankind from Fish — System of Pythagoras— of Aristotle — Dog-
mas concerning the Extinction and Reproduction of Genera and Species —
Strabo*8 Theory of Elevation by Earthquakes — Pliny — Concluding Remarks on
the Knowledge of the Ancients G CHAPTER III. HISTORY OF THE PROGRESS OF GEOLOGY — continued, Arabian "Writers of the Tenth Century — Aricenna — Omar — Cosmogony of the
Koran— Kazwini— Early Italian Writers— Leonardo da Vinci— ifracastoro—
Controversy as to the Real Nature of Fossils — Attributed to the Mosaic Deluge
— Palissy— Steno — Scilla — Quirini — Boyle — Lister — ^Leibnitz— Hooke*s Theory
of Elevation by Earthquakes — Of Lost Species of Animals — Ray — Physico-
Theological Writers— Woodward's Diluvial Theory— Burnet— Whiston—Val-
lisneri — Lazzaro Moro — Generelli — Buffon — His Theory condemned by the
Sorbonne as Unorthodox — His Declaration — Targioni — Arduino — Michell —
Catcott — Raspe — Fuchsel — Fortis — Testa— Whitehurst — Pallas — Saussure 27 CHAPTER IV. HISTORY OF THE PROGRESS OP GEOLOGY — continued. Werner's Application of Geology to the Art of Mining— Excursive Character of his
Lectures— Enthusiasm of his Pupil — His Authority — ^His Theoretical Errors —
Desmarest's Map and Description of Auvergne — Controversy between th«
Vulcanists and Ncptunists— Intemperance of the Rival Sects — Hutton's Theory
of the Earth — His Discovery of Granite Veins— Originality of his Views —
Why opposed — PIayfair*s Illustrations — Influence of Voltaire's Writings on
Geology —Imputations cast on the Huttonians by Williams, Kirwan, and De
Luc— Smith's Map of England— Geological Society of London — Progress of the
Science in France — Growing Importance of the Study of Organic Remains.
CHAPTER V. PREJUDICES WHICH HAVE RETARDED THE PROGRESS OP GEOLOGY. Prepossessions in regard to the Duration of Past Time — ^Prejudices arising from our
peculiar Position as Inhabitants of the Land — Others occasioned by our not
seeing Subterranean Changes now in progress — All these Causes combine to
make the former Course of Nature appear different from the present — Objec-
tions to the Doctrine that Causes similar in Kind and Energy to those now
acting, have produced the former Changes of the Earth's Surface, considered 88 CHAPTER VISUPPOSED INTENSITY OP AQUEOUS CAUSES AT REMOTE PERIODS. Intensity of Aqueous Causes — Slow Accumulation of Strata proved by Fossils —
Rate of Denudation can only keep pace with Deposition— Erratics and Action
of Ice — Deluges, and the Causes to which they are referred— Supposed Univer-
sality of Ancient Deposits • • 103 CHAPTER VII OF THE SUPPOSED FORMER INTENSITY OF THE IGNEOUS FORCES. Volcanic Action at successive Geological Periods — Plutonic Rocks of different
Ages — Gradual Development of Subterranean Movements— Faults — Doctrine
of the Sudden Upheaval of Parallel Mountain-cliains — Objections to the Proof
of the Suddenness of the Upheaval, and the Contemporaneousness of Parallel
Chains — Trains of Active Volcanos not parallel — As Large Tracts of Land are
rising or sinking slowly, so Narrow Zones of Land may be pushed up
gradually to Great Heights — Bonding of Strata by Lateral Pressure — Adequacy
of the Volcanic Power to effect this without Paroxysmal Convulsions . 114 CHAPTER VIII. DIFFERENCE IN TEXTURE OP THE OLDER AND NEWER ROCKS. Consolidation of Fossiliferous Strata — some Deposits originally solid — Structure
termed Transition — Slaty Texture — Crystalline Character of Plutonic andMeta-
morpliic Rocks — ^Theory of their Origin— Essentially Subterranean — No Proofs
that they were produced more abundantly at remote Periods . , 136
CHAPTER IX. THEORY OF THE PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC LIFE
AT SUCCESSIVE GEOLOGICAL PERIODS. Theory of the Progressive Development of Organic Life— Evidence in its Support
derived from Fossil Plants — ^Fossil Animals — MoUusca — Whether they have
advanced in Grade since the Earliest Rocks were formed — High Antiquity of
Cephalopoda^ Slight Indications of Progress afforded by Fossil Fish — ^Fossil
Amphibia — True Reptiles —Transitional Link between Reptiles and Birds —
Land Animals of Remote Periods why rare — Fossil Birds— Mammalia — Stones-
field Marsupials — Absence of Cetacea in Secondary Rocks— Successive Appear-
ance of the great Sub-classes of Mammalia of advancing Grade in Chronological
Order — Modem Origin of Man — Introduction of Man, to what extent a Change
in the System page 143 CHAPTER X

of Land on the Borders of the Ocean— Origin of Shoals and Valleys
in the Bed of the German Ocean — Composition and Extent of its Sand-banks —
Strata deposited by Currents in the English Channel — At tho Mouths of
the AmazoDS, Orinoco, and Mississippi— Wide Area over which Strata may bo
formed by this Cause 56G CHAPTER XXIII.
IGNEOUS CAUSES. Changes of the Inorganic World, continued — Igneous Causes — ^Division of the
Subject— Distinct Volcanic Regions—Region of the Andes— System of Voloinos
extending from the Aleutian Isles to the Molucca and Sunda Islands — Poly-
nesian Archipelago — ^Volcanic Region extending from Central Asia to the Azores
— Tradition of Deluges on the Shores of the Bosphorus, Hellespont, and Grecian
Isles — Periodical Alternation of Earthquakes in Syria and Southern Italy —
Western Limits of the European R«'gion — Earthquakes rarer and more feeble
as we recede from the Centres of Volcanic Action — Extinct Volcanos not to
be included in Lines of Active Vents 57 G CHAPTER XXIV.
VOLCANIC DISTRICT OF NAPLES. History of the Volcanic Eruptions in the District round Naples— Early Convulsions
in the Island of Ischia — Numerous Cones thrown up there — Lake Avemus — Tho
Solfiitara — Renewal of the Eruption of Vesuvius, a.d. 72 — Pliny's Description
of the Phenomena — His Silence respecting the Destruction of Herculaneum and
Pompeii — Subsequent History of Vesuvius — Lava discharged in Ischia in
1302— Pause in the Eruptions of Vesuvius— Monte Nuovo thrown up— Uni-
formity of the Volcanic Operations of Vesuvius and Phlogra^n Fields in Ancient
and Modem Times 599 CHAPTER XXV. VOLCANIC DISTRICT OF NAPLES — continued, Dimensions and Strncture of the Cone of Vesurius — ^Fluidity and Motion of lATa—
Ropy Scoria— Dikes — Hypothesis of Eleviiti'»B Craters not applicable to Somma
and Vesarius — Sections seen in Valleys on the Korth Side of Monte Somma —
Alluviums called 'Aqueous Laras* — Origin and Composition of the Matter
vareloping Herculaneum and Pompeii — Condition and Contents of the buried
C:tic-s— Sm:ill Number of Skeletons — Srnte of Preservation of Animal and Vege-
tnlle Substances — Rolls of Piipyrus— Siabiae — Torre del Greco — Concluding
Remarks on the Campanian Volcanos pagb 621 LIST OF PLATES. Directions to the Binder, Frontis. View of the Temple of Serapis, at Puzzuoli, in 1S36 To face Title-page Plvte I. — Map showing the area in Europe which has been covered by water since the beginning of the Eocene Period . To face P^'ffe 2o\ pLiTE II. — View of Earth-pillars of Ritten, on the Finsterbach, near Botzcn, Tyrol To face Patje 330 Plate III. — Lieal bird's-eyo view of the course of the Niag.ira River fr?m
Lake Erie to Queenstown. showing the ravine cut by the river
l-ctwcen Queen>town and the Falls . . To fac: Page 354 Flltz IV. — Boulders drifted by ice on shores cf the St. Lawrence To face Pig* 351


THE SECOND VOLUME. CHAPTER XXVI.
ETNA. External Physiognomy of Etna— Lateral Cones — Their snecessiTe Obliteration-
Marine Strata at Base of Etna of Newer Pliocene Date^Oldest Volcnnic Hocks . of same Date — ^Foesil Plants of Living Species in ancient Tuffs of Etna — Val
del Boye on the Eastern Flank of Etna — Internal Structure of the Mountain
and Proofs of a Double Axis of Eruption — ^Want of Parallelism in the ancient
'Lavas — Dikes in the Val del Bove, tiieir Form and Composition — Truncation of
the Great Cone— Eruptions of Etna of Historical Date — Eruption of Monti
Roesi, 1669— Scenery of the Val del Bove— Eruptions of 1811 and 1819— That
of 1852 — Changes which it has effected in the Val del Bore — Cascades of Lava
in the Val di Calanna — Inclined Lara of Cava Grande — Flood produced by the
Melting of Ice in 1755 — Glacier preserved by a Covering of Lava — Ancient
Valleys of Etna — ^Antiquity of the Cone of Etna .... paqb 1 CHAPTER XXVIL VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS—

Volcanic Eruption in Iceland in 1783 — New Island thrown up — Lava Currents of
SkaptAr Jokul, in same Year — Their immense Volume — Eruption of Jorullo in
Mexico — Humboldt's Theory of the Convexity of the Plain of Malpais — Eruption
of Galongoon in Java — Submarine Volcanos— Graham Island, formed in 1831
— Volcanic Archipelagos — Submarine Eruptions in Mid Atlantic — The Canaries
— Cones thrown up in Lancerote, 1730-36 — Santorin and its Volcanic Eruptions
— Barren Island in the Bay of Bengal— Mud Volcanos— Mineral Composition
of Volcanic Product* 48 CHAPTER XXVni.
EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR EFFECTS. Earthquakes and their Effects — Deficiency of Ancient Accounts — Ordinary Atmo-
spheric Phenomena— Changes produced by Earthquakes in Modem Times con-
sidered in Chronological Order — Earthquake in New Zealand — Permanent
Upheaval and Subsidence of Land — ^A Fault produced in the "Rocka — ^Earth-
quake in Syria, 1837 — Earthquakes in Chili in 1837 and 1835— Isle of Santa
Maria raised ten Feet — Chili, 1822— Extent of Country elevated— Earthquake
of Cutch in 1819 — Subsidence in the Delta of the Indus — Island of Sumbawa in
1815 — Earthquake of Caraccas in 1812 — Shocks in the Valley of the Mississippi
at New Madrid in 1811 page 80 CHAPTER XXIX. EARTHQUAKES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. Quito, 1797— Sicily, 1790— Calabria, February 5, 1783— Shocks continued to the
end of the Year 1786 — Authorities — Area convulsed — Geological Structure of
the District — Movement in the Stones of two Obelisks— Bounding of detached
Masses into the Air — Difficulty of ascertaining Changes of Level — Subsideiice
of the Quay at Messina — Shift or Fault in the Round Tower of Terranuova —
Opening and Closing of Fissures — Large Edifices engulphed — Dimensions of
New Caverns and Fissures— Gradual Closing in of Rents — Derangement of River
Courses — Landslips — Buildings transported entire to great distiinces — New
Lakes — Funnel-shaped Hollows in Alluvial Plains — Currents of Mud — Fall of
CliflTs, and Shore near Scilla inundated — State of Stromboli and Etna during
the Shocks — Origin and Mode of Propjigation of Earthquake Waves — Depth of
the Subterranean Source of the Movement — Number of Persons who perished
during the Earthquake of 1783 — Concluding Remarks . . . 112 CHAPTER XXX.
EARTHQUAKES — continued. Earthquake of Java, 1772 — Truncation of a lofty Cone — St. Domingo, 1770 —
Lisbon, 1755 — Great Area over which the Shocks extended— Retreat of the
Sea — Proposed Explanations — Conception Bay, 1751 — Permanent Elevation —
Peru, 17-16 — Java, 1699 — Rivers obstructed by Landslips— Subsidence in Sicily,
1693— Moluccas, 1693 — Jamaica, 1692 — ^Large Tracts engulphed— Portion of
Port Royal Sunk — Amount of Change in the last 170 years — Elevation and
Subsidence of Land in Bay of Baise — Evidence of the same afforded by the
Temple of Serapis 145 CHAPTER XXXI. ELEVATION AND SUBSIDENCE OF LAND WITHOUT EARTHQUAKES. Changes in the relative Level of Land and Sea in Regions not Volcanic — Opinion
of Celsius that the Waters of the Biiltic Sea and Northern Ocean were sinking
— Objections raised to his Opinion — Proofs of the Stability of the Sea Level in
the Baltic — Playfair s Hypothesis that the Land was rising in Sweden — Opinion
of Von Buch — Marks cut on the Rocks — Survey of these in 1820— Signs of
Oscillations in Level — Fishing Hut buried under Marine Strata — Facility of
appreciating slight Alterations of Level on the inner and outer Coast of Swe-
den — Supposed Movement in opposite Directions in proceeding from the North
Cape Southwaids to Scania — Change of Level on the West Coast near Oothen-
buig — Geological Proofs of the great Oscillation of Level since the Glacial
Period at TJddeyalla — ^Upraised Marine Deposits of the Western Coast of Swe-
den containing Shells of the Ocean, those on the Eastern Coast Shells of the
Baltic — Whether Norway is now rising — Modem Subsidence of Part of Greenland
— Proofs afforded by these Movements of great Subterranean Changes faob 180 CHAPTER XXXn. CAUSES OF EABTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOS. Intimate Connection between the Causes of Volcanos and Earthquakes — Supposed
Original State of Fusion of the Planet—Its simultaneous and universal Fluidity
not proved by its Spheroidal Figure — Attempt to calculate the Thickness of the
Solid Crust of the Earth by Precessional Motion — Heat of Earth*s Crust
increasing with the Depth, but not equally — No internal Tides of supposed
Central Fluid perceptible — Supposed Change of Axis of Earth's Crust — ^Partial
Fluidity of the Earth's Crust most consistent with Volcanic Phenomena of the
Past and Present — Abandonment of the Data by which the earlier Geologists
supported their Th^ry of the Pristine Fluidity of the Earth's Crust — Doctrine
of a continual Diminution of Terrestrial and Solar Heat considered . 198 CHAPTER XXXIIL CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOS — continued. Agency of Steam in Volcanic Eruptions— Geysers of Iceland — ^New Zealand
Geysers — Expansive Power of Liquid Gases — Access of Salt Water, Atmospheric
Air, and Fresh Water to the Volcanic Foci — How the successive Development
of Vcilcanic Heat in the Earth's Crust causes it to resemble a Body cooling
from a general State of Fusion — ^Flexibility of the Earth's Crust — Electricity
and Magnetism considered as Sources of Volcanic Heat - Chemical Action —
Causes of Permanent Elevation and Subsidence of Land — Balance of Dry Land,
how preserved — Recapitulation of Chapters xxxii. and xxxiii. . . 215
CHANGESOF .THE ORGANIC WORLD NOW IN PROGRESS. CHAPTER XXXIV. LAMARCK ON THE TRANSMUTATION 0F SPECIES. Division of the Subject — Examination of the Question, Whether Species have a
TCftl Existence in Nature ? — Importance of this Question in G*eology — Sketch of
Lamarck's Arguments in favour of the Transmutation of Species, and his Con-
jectures respecting the Origin of existing Animals and Plants — His Theory of
the Transformation of the Orang-outang into the Human Species . . 246
CHAPTER XXXV. THEORIES AS TO THE NATURE OF SPECIES, AND DARWIN ON
NATURAL SELECTION. Objections ui^ed against the Theory of Transmutation and LamarcVs Replies-
Mummies of Animals and Seeds of Plants from Egyptian Tombs identical in
Character with Species now living — Linnseos's Opinion that Speci^es have been
Constant since their Creation — Brocchi^s Hypothesis of the Gradual Diminution
of Vital Power in a Species — ^Whether if New Species are created from Time to
Time their First Appearance must have been witnessed by the Naturalist —
GeofQx)y St. Hilaire and Lamarck on Rudimentary Organs — The Question of
Species as treated of in the * Vestiges of Creation' — Mr. Alfred Wallace on the
Law which has regulated the Introduction of New Species — Mr. Darwin on
Natural Selection, and Mr. Wallace on the same — Darwin's Origin of Species,
and the Change of Opinion which it effected — Dr. Horner's Flora of Australia,
and his Views as to the Origin of Species by Variation . . . paob 263 CHAPTER XXXVI. VARIATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS UNDER DOMESTICATION VIEWED
AS BEARING ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES. Domestic races, however Divergent, breed freely together — Remote Antiquity
of some artificially formed Races — Selection, both Unconscious and Methodi-
cal, veiy influential in forming New Races — The Characters of some Races of
• the Domesticated Pigeon of generic Value — Revival of long-lost Characters in
the Oflfepring of Cross-breeds — Multiple Origin of the Dog — Liherited Instincta
— Variation of the Gold Fish and Silkworm — Man causes particular Parts of an
Animal or Plant to vary while other Parts continue unaltered— Maize — Cab-
bage — Are there any Limits to the Variability of a Species? — Obedience to
Man under Domestication often merely a new Adaptation of a Natural Instinct
— 'Feral* Varieties do not revert to the exact Likeness of the Original Wild
Stock — ^How far do Domestic Races differ from Wild Species in their Capacity
to Inter-breed? — Hybridisation of Animals and Plants — Hermaphrodite
Plants not usually self-fertilised — Whether the Distinctness of Species can be
tested, by Hybridity — Tendency of different Races of Domestic Cattle and
Sheep to herd apart — Pallas on Domesticity eliminating Sterility — Correlation
of Growth 286 NATURAL SELECTION. 4 Natural as compared to Artificial Selection — ^Tendency in each Species to multi-
ply beyond the Means of Subsistence — Terms 'Selection* and * Survival of the
Fittest'— Great Number and Variety of the Natural Conditions of Existence on
which the Constancy or Variation of a Species depends — Acclimatisation of
Species— The Intercrossing of slight Varieties beneficial — Breeding in and in
injurious — Wild Hybrid Plants, and Opinions of Linnseus on Protean Genera
— De CandoUe on Wild Hybrids — Hybridity will not account for Special In-
stincts — The Species of Polymorphous Genera more variable and comparatively
Modem — Alternate Generation does not explain the Origin of New Species 817 CHAPTER XXXVIII. ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES. Geographical Distribution of Animals— -Bufibn on Specific Distinctness of Quad-
rupeds of the Old and New Worlds — Doctrine of * Natural Barriers * — Aostraliau
Marsupials — Geographical Eolation of Extinct Fossil Forms to their nearest
allied living Genera and Species — Geographical Provinces of Birds according to
Dr. Sdater — Their Applicability to Animals and Planto genemllj — Neotropical
Eegion — Neoarctic — Palaearctio — Ethiopian — Indian — Australian— Wallace on
the Limits of the Indian and Australian Regions in tlie Malay Archi-
pelago FAOB 331 CHAPTER XXXIX. ON THE MIGRATION AND DIFFUSION OF TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS. Migration of Quadrupeds — Migratory Instincts — Drifting of Animals on Ice-Floes
— ^Migration of Birds — Migration of Reptiles — Involuntary Agency of Man in
the Dispersion of Animals 867 CHAPTER XL. ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION OF SPECIES
continued. Geographical Distribution and Migration of Fish — Of Testacea — Of Insects— Moths
seen flying 300 Miles from Land — ^Botanical Geography — ^Dispersion oC Plants
— ^Agency of Rivers and Currents — Marine Plants — Sargassum or O* jf-weed —
Agency of Animals in the Distribution of Plants — ^Agency of Ms:., both volun-
tary and involuntary, in the Dispersion of Plants 372 CHAPTER XLI. INSULAR FLORAS AND FAUNAS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE
TO THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES. Voloanic Origin and Miocene Age of the Atlantic Islands — They have not been
since submeiged, nor united with other Islands — Arguments ugiiinst Continental
Extension — Map showing the Great Depth of the Ocean between the Volcanic
Archipelagos of the North Atlantic and the Mainland — Submarine Volcanic
Eruptions of the Present Century — General Inferences to be deduced from the
Endemic and other Species of Animals and Plants in the Atlantic Islands —
From Mammalia — From Birds— From Insects — From Plants — From Landshellr
— Small Number of Species of Landshells common to Madeira and Porto Sanio
— Proportion of Species common to Madeira and the Dezertas — Contrast of the
Testjiceous Fauna of the British Isles and that of the Atlantic Islands — Mode in
which an Oceanic Island might become peopled with LandshoUs — Variability of
Species not greater in Islands than on Continents .... 406 CHAPTER XLII EXTINCTION OF SPECIES. Conditions which enable each Species of Plant to maintain its Oround against
others — Equilibrium in the Number of Species how preserved — Agency of
Insects in preserving this Equilibrium — Devastations caused by Locusts — Effect
of OmniTorous Animals in preserving the Equilibrium of Species — Reciprocal
Influence of Aquatic and Terrestrial Species— How Changes in Physical Geogra-
phy affect the Distribution of Species — Extension of the Range of one Species
alterH that of others — Supposed Effects of the first Entrance of the Polar
Bear into Iceland — Increase of Rein-deer imported into Iceland — Influence
of Man in deranging the Numerical Strength of Species — ^Indigenous Quadru-
peds and Birds extirpated in Great Britain — Extinction of the Dodo — Rapid
Propagation of Domestic Quadrupeds over the American Continent — Power
of exterminating Species bo Prerogative of Man — Concluding Remarks on
Extinction 437 CHAPTER XLIU. MAN CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HIS ORIGIN AND
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. Ot-ographical Distribution of the Races of Man — Drifting of Canoes to vast Dis-
tances — Man, like other Species, has spread from a single Starting-point, or
limited Ar*^a — Whether Man's Bodily Frame became more stationary when his
Mind became more advanced— Great Antiquity of the more marked Human
Races — General Coincidence of their Range with the great Zoological Provinces
— American -Indian common to Neoarctic and Neotropical Regions — Man, an Old-
World Type— Marked Line of Separation between Malayan and Papuan Races
— Distinctness of Negro and European, and Question of the Multiple Origin of
Man — Six-fingered Variety of Man as bearing on the Mutability of his Organi-
sation — Regrowth of Supernumerary Digits when amputated — These Phenomena
referred by Darwin to Reversion — Whether Man has been degraded from a
higher or has risen from a lower Stage of Civilisation — Gradual Diminution
of the Number of Languages and Races — Gauiry on Intermediate Forms be-
tween the Upper Miocene and the Living Mammalia — Relationship of Miocene
and Living Quadrumana — Owen's Classification of Mammalia according to
Cerebral Development — Progressive Advancement in Cerebral Capacity of the
Vertebrata — ^Improvement of Man's Cerebral Conformation — Whether there is
any Fixed Law of Progress — Objections to Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
considered — Great Step gained if Species are shown to be developed accord-
ing to the ordinary laws of Reproduction — Cause of Reluctance to believe in
Man's Derivative Origin . . 469 CHAPTER XLIV. ENCLOSING OF FOSSILS IN PEAT, BLOWN SAND, AND VOLCANIC EJECTIONS. Division of the Subject — Imbedding of Organic Remains in Deposits on emerged
Land — Growth of Peat — Site of Ancient Forests in Europe now occupied by
Peat— Bog Iron-Ore — Preservation of Animal Substances in Peat — Miring of
Quadrupeds — Bursting of the Sol way Moss— Imbedding of Organic Bodies and
Human Remains ia Blown Sand — Great Dismal Swamp^Moving Sands of
African Deserts— Buried Temple of Ipsambul in Egypt— Dried Carcasses in the
Sands of the Desert — Sand-dunes and Towns overwhelmed by Sand-floods —
Imbedding of Organic and other Remains in Volcanic Formations on the
Land 602
CHAPTER XLV. FOSSILS IN ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AND IN CAVES. Fossils in Alluvium — Effects of sudden Inundations — Terrestrial Animals most
abundantly preserved in Alluvium where Earthquakes prevail— Marine Allu-
vium — Buried Towns — Effects of Landslips — Organic Bemains in Fissures and
Caves — Form and Dimensions of Caverns — Their probable Origin — Closed
Basins and Subterranoan Rivers of the Morea — Katavothra — Formation of
Breccias with Red Cement — Human Remains imbedded in Morea — Schmerling
on Intermixture of Human Remains and Bones of Extinct Quadrupeds as
proving the former Co-existence of Man with those lost Species — Bone-brec-
cias formed in Open Fissures and Caves PAOB 518 CHAPTER XLVI. IMBEDDING OF ORGANIC REMAINS IN SUBAQUEOUS DEPOSITS. Division of the Subject — Imbedding of terrestrial Animals and Plants — Increased
Specific Gravity of Wood sunk to great Depths in the Sea — Drift-Timber
carried by the Mackenzie into Slave Lake and Polar Sea — Floating Trees in the
Mississippi — ^In the Gulf-Stream— On the Coasts of Iceland, Spitsbergen, and
Labrador — Submarine Forests — Examples on Coast of Hampshire and in Bay of
Fundy — Mineralisation of Plants — Imbedding of Insects — Of Reptiles — Bones
of Birds why rare — Imbedding of Terrestrial Quadrupeds by River Floods —
Skeletons in recent Shell-marl — Imbedding of Mammalian Remains in
Marine Strata 531 CHAPTER XLVU. IMBEDDING OF THE REMAINS OF MAN AND HIS WORKS IN
SUBAQUEOUS STRATA. Drifting of Human Bodies'to the Sea by River Inundations— How Human Corpses
may be preserved in Recent Deposits — Fossil Skeletons of Men — Number of
Wrecked Vessels— Fossil Canoes, Ships, and Works of Art — Chemical Changes
which Metallic Articles have undergone after long Submergence — Imbedding
of Cities and Forests in Subaqueous Strata by Subsidence— Earthquake of Cutch
in 1819 — Buried Temples of Cashmere— Berkeley's Arguments for the Recent
Date of the Creation of Man — Monuments of I^w-historic Man discovered in
Post-Tertiary Strata 548 CHAPTER XLVIIL IMBEDDING OF AQUATIC SPECIES IN SUBAQUEOUS STRATA. Inhumation of Freshwater Plants and Animals — Shell-marl — Fossilised Seed
Vessels and Stems of Chara — Recent Deposits in American Lakes — Freshwater
Species drifted into Seas and Estuaries — Lewes Levels— ;AlterBations of Marine
and Freshwater Strata, how caused — Imbedding o£ Marine Plants and Animals
— Cetacea stranded on our Shores — Littoral and Estuary Testacea swept into
the deep sea — Burrowing Shells — Living Testacea found at considerable
Depths— Blending of Organic Remains of different Ages . . . 572 46 XVm CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. CHAPTER XLIX.
FORMATION OF CORAL REEFS. Growth of Coral chiefly confined to Tropical RegionB — PrincipU Genera of Coral-
building Zoophytes — Their Rate of Growth — Seldom flourish at greater Depths
than Twenty Fathoms — Atolls or Annular Reefs with Lagoons — Maldiye Isles
— Origin of the Circular Form— Coral Reefs not based on Submerged Volcanic
Craters — Mr. Darwin's Theory of Subsidence in Explanation of Atolls, Encirc-
ling and Barrier Reefs— Why the Windward Side of Atolls highest— Subsidence
explains why all Atolls are nearly on one Level— Alternate Areas of Eleva-
tion and Subsidence — Origin of Openings into the Lagoons — Size of Atolls and
Barrier Reefs — Objection to the Theory of Subsidence considered — Composition,
Structure, and Stratified Arrangement of Rocks now forming in Coral Reefs —
Lime, whence derived— Supposed Increase of Calcareous Matter in Modern
Epochs controverted — Concluding Remarks . .
LIST OP PLATES. View of Bay of Baise near Naples . . , • Frontwpiece, Plate V. — View looking up the Val del Bove, Etna . . Tofacefogt 7 Plate VI. — View of the Val del Bove, as seen from above, or from the Crater of 1819

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